Saturday, August 31, 2019

A Report on Training & Development Department of Spl

Chapter -1 Introduction 1. 0 Introduction Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. is the leading pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh. It has been running its business of about fifty two years and leading the pharmaceutical industry since 1985. Research points to the importance of good recruitment systems in the organizations. The 1980s brought downsizing, organizations were becoming too effective for their numbers of employees employed by them. Most problems concerning Human resources commence when training and development & recruitment and selection are not handled properly.Resignations, low motivation, poor performance may be due to incorrect procedures in the training and development process or in recruitment & selection. Training & Development enables for people to enhance their skills, keep them updated with recent changes. Square offer both on-the-job and off-the- job at both theoretical and practical training opportunities through a range of Local, Regional and International Training pro grams that include both functional and managerial levels on the basis of Training Need Assessment.Training Need Analysis (TNA) is conducted by Department Heads and Human Resource Department jointly on the basis of job analysis. The article also discusses the importance of good recruitment at technical & managerial levels & the implications that are encountered as a result of ad hoc recruitment process. Recruitment is responsibility of every manager in the organization. 1. 2 Origin of the Report Now a day, Education is not just limited to books and classr oom. From education the theoretical knowledge is obtained from course of study, which is only the half way of the subject matter Practical knowledge has no alternative.The perfect coordination between theory and practice is of paramount importance in the context of the modern business world now days. Therefore an opportunity is offered by Stamford University Bangladesh, for the potential business graduates to get three month practic al experience, which is known as â€Å"Internship Program†. To complete of the internship program, the author of the study was placed in a Company namely, â€Å"Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd (SPL), for the period of three months starting from Jun 19, 2011 to September 19, 2011.Internship program brings a student closer to the real life situation and thereby helps to launch a career with some prior experience. This project was assigned by the organizational Supervisor Ms. Tania Sultana, Executive in HR of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and was approved by the Faculty supervisor Mr. Md. Mohiuddin, Professor, Department of Management Studies, University of Dhaka. 1. 3 Significance of the Report The main reason of this study is to become familiar with the realistic business world to attain practical knowledge about the Pharmaceutical related business in the corporate world.We all know that there is no alternative of practical knowledge which is more beneficial than theoretical aspects . 1. 4 Objectives of the Report The primary reason of writing this report is to fulfill the internship requirement of BBA program. The prime objective of the study will be to evaluate the recruitment and selection and procedure of Square Pharmaceutical Ltd. To facilitate achieve the prime objective; this study aims at attaining the following SPL operational objectives: * To get a clear and practical knowledge about the business of SPL. To understand the perspective of creating and presenting the new idea. * To fulfill the requirement of the BBA degree. * To get practical idea about organizational environment. * To introduce the new situation, new environment. * How management is analyzing work and planning for people? 1. 5 Selection of the Topic The topic selected for the study was chosen by me and approved by Dr. Shahid Uddin Ahmed. Chapter-2 Company Background 2. 0 Organization History SQUARE today symbolizes a name – a state of mind. But its journey to the growth and prosp erity has been no bed of roses.From the inception in 1958, it has today burgeoned into one of the top line conglomerates in Bangladesh. SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. , the flagship company, is holding the strong leadership position in the pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh since 1985 and is now on its way to becoming a high performance global player. SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Limited is the largest pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh and it has been continuously in the 1st position among all national and multinational companies since 1985. It was established in 1958 and converted into a public limited company in 1991.The sales turnover of SPL was more than Taka 11. 46 Billion (US$ 163. 71 million) with about 16. 43% market share (April 2009- March 2010) having a growth rate of about 16. 72%. SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Limited has extended her range of services towards the highway of global market. She pioneered exports of medicines from Bangladesh in 1987 and has been exporting antibioti cs and other pharmaceutical products. This extension in business and services has manifested the credibility of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Limited. 2. 1 Milestone of SPL * Year of Establishment 1958. * Incorporate as a Public Limited Company – 1964. Technical Collaboration Agreement with Jansen Pharmaceuticals of Belgium. A subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson International Limited – 1975. * Technical collaboration Agreement with F. Hoffman – La Roche & Company Limited – 1984. Converted into Public Limited Company – 1991. * Stock exchange listing (D & C) – 1995. * Agreement with M/S. Bevis tandem Limited of UK for implementation of Dhaka Plant – 1996. Awarded ISO- 9001 Certificate -1998. * Business Lines- Manufacturing & Marketing of Pharmaceuticals finished product, Basic Chemicals & Agro vet products. 2. 2 Vision of the SPLSquare view business as a means to the material & social wellbeing of the investors, employees and the society at large, leading to accretion of wealth through financial and moral gains as a part of the process of the human civilization. 2. 3 Mission of the SPL Square mission is to produce and provide Quality and innovative healthcare relief for people, maintain stringently ethical standard in business operation also ensuring benefit to the Shareholder’s, Stakeholder’s and the society at large. Business Slogan Square Pharmaceuticals Limited always upholds the dictum: â€Å"Dedicated to advanced technology. The Corporate Slogan Square Group of industries has a common corporate Slogan which is: â€Å"Jibon Bachatey, Jibon Sajatey. † Corporate Focus Square vision, mission and Square objectives are to emphasize on the quality of product, process and services leading to growth of the company imbibed with good governance practices. 2. 4 Goals of the SPL Develop a realistic deposit mobilization plan. Strengthen operation in domestic to increase market share and profitability to offer m ore value to the shareholders offer contract manufacturing facility.Manufacture and market time demanded and international standard pharmaceutical in domestic and export market. Association with global research based pharmaceutical company for marketing or manufacturing their products. 2. 5 Objective of the SPL Square’s objectives are to conduct transparent business operation based on market mechanism within the legal and social frame work with aims to attain the mission reflected by the company’s vision. * Total Commitment to the needs of customers. * To follow the highest ethical standards. * Continuous improvement of all work process. Permanent improvement of all the employees â€Å"Knowledge and Skills†. * Securing the Quality of Products to match the Quality of Service. * Preserving the company’s leading positioning the national market of Pharmaceuticals industry. 2. 6 Corporate Governance Top Management Board of Directors As per provisions of the Ar ticle of Association, Board of Directors holds periodic meetings to resolve issue of policies and strategies, recording minutes/decisions for implementation by the Executive Management. 2. 6. 1 Executive ManagementThe Executive Management is headed by the Managing Director, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who has been delegated necessary and adequate authority by the Board of Directors. The Executive Management operates through further delegations of authority at every echelon of the line management. The Executive Management is responsible for preparation of segment plans/sub- segment plans for every profit centers with budgetary targets for every item of goods & services and is held accountable for deficiencies with appreciation for exceptional performance.These operations are carried out by the Executive Management through series of committees, sub-committees, adhock committees, standing committees assisting the line management. 2. 7 SQUARE Quality Policy Ensure strict complianc e with WHO CGMP standards and local regulatory norms in every phase of sourcing & procuring quality materials, manufacturing, quality assurance and delivery of medicines. Ensure all activities through documented Quality Management System (QMS) complying International Standard requirements of ISO 9001 through continuously developing Human Resources by regular training and participation.SQUARE is committed to undertake appropriate review, evaluation and performance measurement of processes, business activities and Quality Management System for continual improvement to ensure highest standard, customer satisfaction, developing human resources and company's growth. Business should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights with in their sphere of influence. Make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses. Business should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining.The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor. The effective abolition of child labor. Elimination discrimination in respect of employment and occupation. Business should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges. Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility. Encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies. Business should work against corruption in all its forms, including exportation and bribery. 2. 8 Business Performance over the Last Few Decades 1958: Debut of Square Pharma as a Partnership Firm. * 1964: Converted into a Private Limited Company. * 1974: Technical Collaboration with Janssen Pharmaceutical, Belgium, a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson International, USA. * 1982: Licensing Agreement signed with F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. , Switzerland. * 1985: Achieved first position in the Pharmaceutical Market of Bangladesh among all national and multinational companies. * 1987: Pioneer in pharmaceutical expo rt from Bangladesh. * 1991: Converted in to a Public Limited Company. 1994: Initial Public Offering of Square Pharmaceutical Shares. * 1995: Chemical Division of Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. starts production of pharmaceutical bulk products (API). * 1997: Won the National Export trophy for exporting pharmaceuticals. * 1998: Agro-chemicals ; Veterinary Products Division of Square Pharma starts its operation. * 2001: US FDA/UK MCA standard new Pharmaceutical factory goes into operation built under the supervision of Bovis Lend Lease, UK. * 2004: Signing of agreement with ROVIPHARM, Vietnam to manufacture and market Square products under license in Vietnam. 2004: Secured the top position for the best published accounts and report for 2003 in the manufacturing category for transparency and excellence in corporate reporting. * 2005: New State-of- the-Art Square Cephalosporin’s Ltd. goes into operation; built under the supervision of TELSTAR S. A. of Spain as per US FDA/ UK MHRA req uirements. * 2007: Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd. , Dhaka Unit gets the UK MHRA approval. 2. 9 Organ Gram of SPL HRD Chapter-3 Training ; Development Activities Undertaken in Human Resource Department of SPL 3. Human Resource: Practices ;Environment SQUARE, with its progressive business outlook, believes and practices corporate work culture with a classic blend of efficiency and equity. SQUARE believes in company growth by increasing efficiency level of employees and for that offering excellent environment and support for skill and knowledge up gradation. SQUARE values productivity as the spontaneous contribution of Human Resources. Strategic Human Resource Development Programs are the energy sources for SQUARE HR for running towards the zenith of success .Flow of clear and specific information and justification of queries play the vital role to ensure the market reputation of SQUARE as the most trusted and transparent company and it enriches the motivation level of HR who are the real contributors and owners of his/her own jobs. At SQUARE, HRD symbolizes the unique blending of professionalism as well as sharing the stress and success equally like a family where every member has deep concern, feelings and pride for their own company SQUARE.HR ensures the strong supporting role to develop ; implement HR policy guidelines for ensuring uninterrupted operation and spontaneous participation to achieve organizational objective as well as fulfillment of employee needs. HR is maintaining an effective way to deal with labor union and still no unrest has been recorded as dispute Personnel working here are taking care of SQUARE as it is their own family Training ; development: One major function of Human Resource Department is Training and Development .It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees. * Optimum Utilization of Human Resour ces –D;T helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employees to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. * Productivity-The department organizes training that helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. Development of skills of employees- Through training and development it helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees Team spirit: Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. * Organization Climate: The HRD help building the positive perception and feeling about the organization since the joining of an employee through organizing orientation programs.We also ensure this climate persist s and employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. * Organization Culture: Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. * Quality: Through training and development we help in improv9ing upon the quality of work and work-life. * Health work environment: Training and Development helps in creating the healthy worki8ng environment . It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. Health ; Safety: Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. * Image: D;T try to create a better corporate image through arranging internship and in plant training for the students of different universities. * Employee Development: D;T helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that s uccessful workers and managers usually display. 3. 2 Training and Employee Development in Square SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Training ; Development enables the people to enhance their skills, keep them updated with recent changes. SQUARE offer both on-the-job and off-the- job at both theoretical and practical training opportunities through a range of Local, Regional and International Training programs that include both functional and managerial levels on the basis of Training Need Assessment. Training Need Analysis (TNA) is conducted by Department Heads and Human Resource Department jointly on the basis of job analysis. 3. 2. 1 Management Development TrainingRound the year, management development training is organized for managers ; executives at our Corporate Headquarters, Dhaka Unit ; Pabna Unit. Square had own and renowned resource persons from home ; abroad conduct the training sessions. We also send our employees to renowned local training institutes for specialized training. 3 . 2. 2 Overseas Training Square send their employee to abroad for training program depending on availability of appropriate topics. Technical persons of our factories attend the Factory Assessment Test (FAT) in various parts of the world for smooth operation of equipments. 3. . 3 Field Forces Training ; Development Each year, a significant number of Field Forces complete their induction training program and joined to their respective markets and appear at examination in every month for further development. 3. 2. 4 Field Forces Refresher Course For updating product knowledge and selling skills of field forces, Refresher Course is organized in four different regions in every month. 3. 2. 5 Territory Manager Training Twice in every year, mid-level managers of sales participate in the training program titled â€Å"Sales Territory Management† at a regular basis. 3. 3 Purpose of TrainingIn today market place, it’s given that everyone want increased efficiency, better perform ance a bigger piece of the pie. Yet virtually everyone’s finding this more and more difficult to achieve. May be sheer number of competitors has increased. Perhaps growing price pressure is impacting, or the technology ageing. So, unless the product or service is the only one of its kind, we are looking for an edge, an advantage something special from the major competition. And training is one of the strongest toll through which a specialty can be created. Good training lessens frustration and boredom between supervisor and workers.It contributes to improved human relations and raises morale. The improvement in skills increases productivity and lessens turnover. Employees that the organization needs their support are less likely to leave the firm for another position. Through training organization help make employees more loyal to the company. Training also helps ambitious employees forge ahead in their own careers. On the other hand, Better product increases customer satisfa ction lead to repeat business and large sales. When we develop employees potential these things are vastly related.Training is a leadership activity, which prepares individuals for their own future opportunities. 3. 4 SPL Employee Training Training can involve the changing of employees’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and behavior. It is therefore necessary to ascertain the appropriate requirements of each job in terms of these four factors. Training needs can generally be classified as either individual or group needs. Individual needs may relate to orientation (induction) training, initial (basic) training, remedial training (to correct perceived faults), refresher training (such as in company policy, safety, fire drill) or personal development.Group needs, on the other hand, refer to the need for a number of employees to change their behavior collectively. Examples include team building exercises designed to increase group cohesion or group co-ordination. In addition, types o f training needs can be grouped into the following two categories: Reactive Identify of existing weaknesses and reacting to remedy them. Proactive Preparation of employees to handle anticipated future changes both within and outside the organization. This is a longer-term approach, more oriented towards development. 3. 7 Training Needs AnalysisA Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a review of learning and development requirements for staff, volunteers and trustees within in your organization. It considers the skills, knowledge and behaviors that you or your staff need, and how to develop them effectively. Techniques for Determining Specific Training Needs There are a number of practical methods which can use to gather data about employees’ performance. Each works well in given circumstances; therefore, we must determine which the best is for employee. None of these methods can stand alone. Always use at least two, if for no other reason to validate your findings.One of those we choose should always be observation. 3. 2 Training Methods Training is a key part of business growth and change. To help ensure that dollars are well spent, a company must choose their training programs wisely. When managing any training process, we recommend that company leaders work closely with functional department heads and Human Resources personnel in following a systematic approach to training. A good system will help attack training problems using a â€Å"rifle† approach, rather than a â€Å"shotgun† approach. The following are five generic steps or phases in the model that we as trainers simply call A.D. D. I. E. Follow these steps to build your training program, and you will increase your chances of assembling an effective program. 3. 3 Analyze Analyzing the need, or performing a  Ã¢â‚¬Å"needs assessment,†Ã‚  is crucial in identifying the information that must be addressed in the program. This is where SPL ask the question,  Ã¢â‚¬Å"What do we want o ur employees to get out of the program? †Ã‚  A great way to complete this phase is to perform a â€Å"gap analysis† by comparing current results to the desired performance. Another way to perform this phase is to treat team members as stakeholders in the process, much like it treats customers.Get their help by asking for specifications for the training. After all, they know where they need help†¦ particularly when it comes to delivering a better product or dealing with customers. This analysis is also useful in creating metrics that will help your organization gauge the effectiveness of the training. This phase is where training program objectives begin to take shape. 3. 4 Design Design phase is where we link the needs assessment to the actual creation of new curriculum or the arrangement of existing curricula. This is where we assemble information tied to each program objective.From the needs analysis, we draw the blueprints of the training, based on the customer specifications. Remember, in this context, the customers that we are speaking of are your team members. If we design the training based on their needs, we get a better product. This is also the phase where we begin to think about the operational considerations of the program. Ask the question: How is the delivery of the program going to influence my business operations? The answer to this question will force functional managers to make decisions about how they will change operations in the interim to support the program. . 5 Develop Materials This includes items like, references, info packs, case studies, movies, games, and other visual aids. Remember to keep the information organized and easy to use by both the facilitator and the attendees†¦confusing programs will sabotage your program. This is also a great time to ensure that feedback from previous sessions is included. Make sure that the programs are up to date†¦spice things up by revamping statistical data, and findin g new stories to tell. If the attendees are bored, they will not stay engaged with the facilitator.If attendees are disengaged, they will absorb less knowledge. Keep them engaged with activities such as trivia questions, interactive exercises, and group discussions. 3. 6 Implementation Time for Class! This is when the training actually takes place. Here are a few things to think about: * Practice * Feedback forms * Management/leadership observations and interactions * Facilities management, including room arrangement and equipment * Classroom rules and expectations, including safety and evacuation procedures 3. 7 Evaluate All system outputs are a direct reflection of inputs, processes, and adjustments.The training process is no different. If the outputs of the program are less than desired, then changes to the program may be necessary. Companies should establish a systematic evaluation process to enhance the effectiveness of the training. We feel that the evaluation of the program s hould occur in two phases: 1) immediately after the program, and 2) some period later†¦for instance 6 months. The evaluation performed immediately after the program serves to correct urgent training issues such as incorrect data. This is also the time to concentrate on instructor techniques.The later evaluation determines whether the training enhanced employee and/or company performance. Chapter-4 Conclusion 4. 1 Conclusion Square is now the leading Pharmaceutical Company of Bangladesh and becoming a high performance global player in the field. From its formation to the present day, it has been successful in its endeavors. It provides quality medication and strictly follows all regulations. In Bangladesh over three thousand of people are working here. The medicine of Square is famous in Bangladesh as well as in foreign countries. HR Department of Square is playing a vital role as a corporate strategy maker.Growth of the company depends on hiring, developing, retaining skilled a nd motivating employees. HR Department is continuously hiring skilled people from wide market and thus provides trainings to cope with global challenges. Through various HR activities and training programs they retain talents in the organization, ensure career path for performers to perform more efficiently and effectively to contribute more and more. The Training and Development section of Square Pharmaceutical is always trying to ensure the best training programs for employees at the right time, right place.With the latest facilitated training resources they ensure the most effective training sessions for all level of employees. â€Å"Square Pharmaceuticals Limited† practices a progressive recruitment and selection procedures. HR officers of Square Pharmaceuticals Limited are now expected to work beyond the boundaries of contracts and policies to contribute directly to the operation and success of the Human Resources Department. 4. 2 Appendix LIST OF ABBREVIATION 1. PMD- Pr oduct Management Department. 2. AM – Area Manager. 3. FS- Field Supervisor. 4. TR- Tour Program. 5. DCR- Daily Call Report 6.DSE- Dhaka Stock Exchange. 7. SPL- Square Pharmaceuticals Limited. 8. MRA- Market Research Assistant. 9. MPO- Medical Promotion Officer. 10. SMPO- Senior Medical Promotion Officer. 11. MG- Manager. 12. GM- General Manager. 13. PPO- Product Promotion Officer. 14. SDO- Sales Development Officer. 15. SSDO- Senior Sales Development Officer. 16. TNA- Training Need Analysis. 17. SPO- Sales Promotion Officer. 18. SSPO- Senior Sales Promotion Officer. 19. TM- Territory Manager. 20. MP- Market Promoter. 21. FM- Field Manager. 4. 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY: * Annual report (2010-2011), Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd.Written ; Edited by: Accounts ; Finance Department of SQUARE Pharmaceuticals Ltd. * Raymond A. Noe, John R. Hollenbeck, Last Published: 2011, Human Resource Management, 10th edition, Publisher: Irwin/ McGraw-Hill, Boston, Massachusetts. * Dessler Gary, last published : 2011, Human Resource Management, 9th edition, Publisher: Prentice hall, New Jersey. * French L. Wendell, last published: 2011, Human Resource Management, 9th edition, Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. * SQUARE Library Reports, Maintained by: General Service Department. * www. squaregroup. com,2004, SQUARE Informatix Ltd.

Friday, August 30, 2019

To What Extent Are Conformity and Obedience Likely Outcomes of Human Behaviour

Conformity and obedience are forms of social influences which strongly affect our behaviour in social situations from following fashions to committing immoral acts because we are commanded to by someone who appears to be in a position of authority. This essay looks at to what extent are conformity and obedience likely outcomes of human behaviour and can individuals avoid these social influences? Conformity is a change in belief or behaviour in response to real or imagined group pressure when there is no direct request to comply with the group nor any reason to justify the behaviour change (Gross: 2010: P401).Research has shown that when confronted by social norms individuals will often adjust their behaviour closer to the perceived norm. The Asch (1951) experiment involved subjects performing a perception task saying which of a selection of lines matched a control line in length. The subjects were unaware that the other participants in the room were confederates. During the experimen t confederates would give the same incorrect answer to the question. Asch found that no one conformed on all the critical trials, and 13 of the 50 participants (26 per cent) never conformed.One person conformed on 11 of the 12 critical trials, and about 75 per cent conformed at least once during the experiment. (Gross: 2010: P403). This is backed up by Doms and Avermaet (1981) experiment they reproduced the same result as Asch. Obedience means behaving as instructed, but not necessarily changing your opinions. Obedience happens when you are explicitly directed to do something. Most obedience is reasonable, but when it is to unjust authority, the consequences may be disastrous. Flanagan: 2008: P125) In Milgrams experiment (1963) each participant took the role of a teacher who would then deliver a shock to the student every time an incorrect answer was produced. Whilst the participant believed that he was delivering real shocks the student was actually a confederate in the experiment. As the experiment progressed the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released. Once the 300-volt level had been reached the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released.After this point the learner was completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect answer and deliver the shock. Most participants asked the experimenter if they should continue. The experimenter issued a series of commands to prod the participants along â€Å"please continue† and â€Å"the experiment requires that you continue†. The results of the experiment show that of the 40 participants 26 delivered the maximum shocks while only 14 stopped before reaching the highest levels.Some participants became extremely agitated and angry at the experimenter but continued to follow his orders. The findings from both these experiments would suggest that we conform and obey to a great extent. Howeve r levels of obedience did alter when we look at different variations of Milgram’s experiment (1963) for example proximity of learner – If the teacher was placed in the same room as the learner and had to press the learner’s hand on the shock plate, obedience fell to 30%. Flanagan: 2008: P125). Moscovici in his experiment of minority influence showed that people did not conform or obey. He placed 2 confederates together with 4 genuine participants all had no colour blindness. They were shown 36 slides which were clearly different shades of blue and asked to state the colour out loud. In the first part of the experiment the 2 confederates answered consistently green for each of the 36 slides. In the second part they answered inconsistent green 24 and blue 12 times.Moscovici found that the participants in the consistent condition yielded and called the slides green in 8. 4% of trials. 32% of the participants in the consistent condition reported a green slide at lea st once. Participants in the inconsistent condition yielded and called the slides in only 1. 3% of the trials. In this situation we can see that social influence occurs as a result of minority, rather than majority influence therefore minorities can influence the majority but not all the time and only when the confederates behaved consistently.Moscovici shows that if majority influence was the only process, then opinions would never change because we all would continue to follow the majority. Yet history is littered with examples of changing attitudes, such as those towards females and homosexuals. These changes are due to minority influence. These findings to somewhere towards answering the initial question of this discussion – to what extent are conformity and obedience likely outcomes of human behaviour?Obviously there is no definite answer and never will be as all humans are individuals with their own personality. Every person is born into society with their own particula r culture, language, style of dress and behaviour. However, every person is introduced to acceptable attitudes and beliefs, and learn certain norms and values which are thought ‘appropriate’ by other members of their group. This socialisation can effect peoples decision making and choices because we as humans feel the need to have acceptance and to be part of a group – therefore to conform and obide.In answer to the second question can individuals avoid these social influences? Social influence occurs when one’s emotions, opinions or behaviours are effected by others and can be seen in conformity and obedience. Social Influence is largely concerned with the factors that maintain the status quo by conforming to the views or behaviour of the majority or obedience to those in a position of authority. People with strong moral convictions are less likely to be influenced therefore avoiding social influence. (Flanagan: 2008).

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Skills for effective management education essay

Undertaking 1What Skills are required for effectual direction? Analysze with back uping grounds from ain experience, two personal accomplishment and two professional accomplishments a director demand to be effectual in their function, explicate how these contribute to run intoing both organizational and personal ends.Skills for effectual direction:The importance of managerial public presentation and effectivity has long been recognised by major authors such as Drucker who originally in 1955, propounded that: The director is a dynamic, life giving component in every concern. Without their leading ‘the resources of production remain resources and ne'er become production. In a competitory company, overall the quality and public presentation of the directors is the lone effectual advantage and endeavor in a compitive company can hold. ( Drucker, 1955 ) Managerial efficiency can be distinguished from managerial effectivity.Efficiency is concerned with making things right and relates to inputs and what the director does. Effectiveness is concerned with making the right things and associate to end product of the occupation and what the director really achieves. To be efficient the director must go to to therefore to the input demand of the job-to elucidation of the aims, be aftering organisation way and control. But in order to be effectual, the director must give attending to end product of the job-to public presentation in term of such factors as obtaining best possible consequences in the of import countries of the organisation, optimizing usage of resources, increasing profitableness and attainment of the purposes and aims of the administration. Effectiveness must be related to the accomplishment of some intent, nonsubjective or undertaking to the public presentation of the procedure of direction and the executing of the work. Lut hens effort to separate between effectual and successful directors.Effective Directors:They are defined in term of the measure and quality of criterions of public presentation and satisfaction and committedness of subsidiaries.Successful Directors:They are defined operationally in term of the velocity of their publicity within an organisation. ( Mullings L,2007 ) .Based on the research in the universe and in Vietnam and from the success of old workshops the Centre for Excellence in Management Development ( CEMD ) continuously offers the workshop on Effective Management Skills to assist people and organisation bettering their ain effectivity and efficiency. Through this workshop participants are non merely developed specific competences in the agenda but besides improved learning accomplishments easing accomplishments and teamwork skills.A Skills which are required for effectual direction are described blew under chief accomplishments and bomber accomplishments.Creative Problem Solvi ng Skills:Describing and analysing a job Identifying causes of a job Developing originative options and taking the best class of action Implementing and measuring effectual and efficiency of the determination.Communication Skills:Listening accomplishments Presentation accomplishments Feedback Skills Report witting accomplishments.Conflict Management Skills:Identifying beginnings of struggle functional and dysfunctional struggles Understanding personal manner of struggle declaration Choosing the best scheme for covering with a struggle Developing accomplishments in advancing constructive struggles in organisation and squads.Negotiation Skills:Distinguishing distributive and integrative dialogues place Identifying common errors in dialogue and ways to avoid them Developing rational thought in dialogue Developing effectual accomplishments in dialogue that benefits all parties involved.Two personal accomplishmentsTime direction Problem work outingTwo professional accomplishmentsPresentation accomplishment Report composing accomplishmentEvaluation of my professional and personal accomplishmentThese accomplishments will helpful for me in future to run into personal and professional ends. My clip direction is really good I am punctual and regular and ever reached on clip whenever I have to travel. I ne'er tardily from category or even where of all time I go ne'er tardily. This proves really helpful for me because I ne'er missed the things like talks etc. I besides have ability of job work outing. I can work out job easy and instantly and take best result of jobs. I ever try my degree best to work out the jobs every bit shortly as possible with best result so that I can get away from emphasis or tenseness. These both personal accomplishments will helpful for me in hereafter. Through practise I besides have command on study authorship, ab initio I was non able how to compose a study but go toing talks and pattern now I am able to compose good professional study. I besides gave presentation. Now it is easy for me to give good nowadays. Now I can compose down different professional study and I am able to give good presentation. These besides will helpful for me in future to accomplish organizational and personal ends.Mentions:Mullings, L. ( 2007 ) Management and Organizational Behaviour, 8th Edition: Edexcel hypertext transfer protocol: // -managment-skill-e.htm ( Access day of the month 24/04/2010 )Undertaking 2Behavior a personal and professional accomplishments audit utilizing SWOT analysis. Employ cause and consequence diagram to farther analysis one professional and one personal accomplishment. Generate a elaborate action program which demonstrates how you intend to turn to countries for farther direction and leading development. Explain the impact of larning manners on personal accomplishments.SWOT stands for S=Strengths=Weaknesses=Opportunities T=ThreatsPersonal SWOT analysisStrengthsFailingsTime Management Decision Making Problem Solving Computer Skills Poor Stress Management Trouble in puting aims Poor background of concern. Not CreativeOpportunitiesMenacesSelf Improvement Feedback from coach Interaction different part ‘s people Home office, if I get failed If non acquire occupation fee entry job May be non able to go through DMSTable: 1.0: Personal SWOT analysisProfessional SWOT AnalysisStrengthsFailingsReport Writing Skill Presentation Skill Poor Leadership Poor Coaching Poor Communication SkillsOpportunitiesMenacesAfter complete DMS, I can make MBA. Deliver good Presentation Occupation in Banks Because of hapless communicating I may non able to present presentation good and lose the occupationTable 2.0: Professional SWOT AnalysisCause and consequence diagram is frequently known as Ishikawa or fishbone diagram.Professional Failing:Less opportunity to take people Poor communicating accomplishment Poor Leadership Poor coaching accomplishmentFigure: 2.1: Fishbone diagram of Poor LeadershipPersonal FailingShort Temper Poor Stress Management Poor CommunicationFigure: 2.2: Fishbone Diagram of Poor Stress ManagementBrooding AnalysisMy professional failing is hapless leading. Because I have less opportunities to take a group or people. Another cause may be hapless communicating and some clip I am non plenty able to present my message to the people. But after cognizing about my failing now I am seeking my degree best to get the better of this failing. I am seeking the abilities of how become good leader. On personal side my emphasis direction is really hapless so far. The causes of hapless emphasis directions are I am short tempered and I get angry may be there is no valid ground to acquire angry. Another cause may be hapless communicating, when I get angry I ne'er express my feelings and I feel there is deficit of words and I became soundless. But after measuring my failing I am seeking to seek the accomplishments how to pull off with emphasis. Now I am able to pull off the emphasis to some extent but it needs more attending and more clip.Learning StyleEducationist have long realised that we learn in different ways. One widely used classification of different acquisition manners that provided by Honey and Mumford. They identified four different characters with rather different preferable larning styles-the militant, the pragmatist, the reflector, the theoretician. diagnostic trials exist to set up which larning manner is more appropriate for you and assist you develop an action program to develop your larning accomplishments You should give yourself a mark between one and ten ( 1-10 ) for how good each of the description describe you. If you give it to 1 it is really hapless description of you. if u give it 10 it is really good description of you. My learning manner is Pragmatists which I describe blow.DefinitionDescriptionTonssPragmatistYou are a practical individual You like to work out jobs You enjoy experimenting to better techniques You often come up with reply to the jobs You merely interested theories is to see if they work in pattern You dislike state of affairs where there is no clear, practicle result You work good to deadlines.You learn good when:You are expected to do practical determinations Using simulations and instance surveies Learning from proven good pattern, utilizing the illustrations and the expertness of others. 8 8 8 8 7 8 8 8 8 7Pragmatist Total =78Table 3.0: Pragmatist Learning StyleInterptation of Learning StyleA pragmatist is a practical individual who likes to work out jobs. They enjoy experimenting to better techniques. They often come up with the reply to a job. Their lone involvement in theories is to see if they work in pattern. They dislike the state of affairs where there is no clear practical result.Pragmatist learns good when:They are expected to do practical determinations Timescales are tight They must break happen better ways to make things Learning from proven good pattern Learning from illustrations and the expertness of others They are expected to be after the following measure Pragmatists will peculiarly profit from developing which involves simulations and instance surveiesPragmatists learn less good when:They are expected to come up with new thoughts themselves The practical relevancy of what they are making is ill-defined They are expected to work out why a technique work As a pragmatist scholar I like to work out jobs. Harmonizing to this timescale is tight. I ever complete my work on clip. I used to larn from practical illustrations and I ever learn from good pattern. When I start pattern instantly I can understand. There are some jobs of larning when any one expects to come up with my thoughts because I am less originative. Sometime it is ill-defined for me what I am making. This exercising is really helpful for me because after to cognizing my learning manner I am seeking my degree best to get the better of my failings and seeking to larn more and heighten my strengths.Undertaking 3You need to find your ends utilizing SMART, and clearly place mark day of the months for monitoring and reappraisal. Produce an on-going development program and brooding record of direction experience.On achieving one professional and personal goal-produce a brooding analysis for each end.Personal GoalImprove Communication accomplishmentExamples:My personal end is to be tter my communicating accomplishments by larning more English. When I came in UK for survey it was really hard for me to pass on in English so I made this end that I have to larn English for good communicating and for personal development. Now I am seeking hard to larn English to pass on people and seek occupation every bit good. Regardless of the size of concern we are in whether a big corporation a little company or even a place based concern effectual communicating accomplishments are indispensable for success. Communication is really of import tool for personal development. In fact communicating is merely successful when both the transmitter and the receiving system understand the same information as a consequence of the communicating. So I started working on it and by the terminal of this month I will be able to pass on good and for this I am besides larning English. When my communicating will be effectual I became successful miss.Professional GoalImprove Leadership AbilityExam ples:Improve leading abilities is my professional end. It is the activity of taking a group or squad. I find myself that there is deficiency in my leading abilities. For this I need good communicating, being articulated, flexible, creativeness and empathetic every bit good. So to seek the leading abilities I have to larn these things every bit good. The factors that lead to this failing are weak communicating accomplishment, non plenty originative and less opportunities to lead people. So now I am seeking my degree best to larn leading abilities for professional development. Whenever I go for occupation so this will be helpful for me in hereafter.Personal Development Plan ( PDP )Learning and development demandHow does this back up your professional and personal endsLearning actions to be taken including resources needed to accomplish themDate of accomplishmentAttempt to compose professional study Improve communicating accomplishments When I will make occupation in Bankss etc. This pattern will helpful for me in future It will assist in my personal and professional development Submit my study to Dr.Gary Bell in order to derive feedback It will assist in my professional and personal development. 14th May 2010 10th May 2010.Table 4.0: Table of PDP ( Personal and Professional )Undertaking 4Writing accomplishment in being an effectual director. Include study composing as a professional failing in the SWOT analysis, and should be included in the development program. Undertake study composing exercising. On completion of the study undertake a brooding analysis of this professional accomplishment.Report on â€Å" Project Management: Is there A Crisis? †AbstractionThis study discusses about the package undertaking failure and aims to foreground the causes of package crises. Many research workers done different researches to look into out the causes of package undertaking failure. Furthermore, the article suggested that the money was wasted on ailment planned, misdirection and delayed Information Technology undertakings. The determination shows that the jobs associated with package crises still persist and believed that there is need to re-examine the package development phenomenon.Table o f ContentIntroduction†¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ .16 Symptoms of Software Crisis†¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ ..17 Primary Causes of Software Crisis†¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ .. †¦ †¦ ..18 Decision†¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ 19 Mentions†¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ †¦ .20IntroductionThe package industry has grown and evoveled over decennaries. This is calculating and Information Technology age and these became demand of the hr because they made our life easier as earlier earlier. Calculating and package engineering has become more sophisticated and powerful every twelvemonth which can trip new package markets. Furthermore clients are going more ambitious and are bring forthing more demanding demands. Sadly, the package industry is still tarnished by jobs, such as cost overproductions, scheduladge slippage and hapless merchandise quality. These jobs known as the ‘software crisis ( Conte et al 1986 ) .Anecdotal grounds that in the UK the crisis is non slaking is provided. Therefore, we argue that one primary cause is package undertaking direction and associatory orthodox attacks. Charette ( 2005 ) has complied some dumbfounding failure statistics. He mentioned that package undertaking failure accurse in about every state, like UK, USA, Australia, and Canada on big or little degree. He discusses that package crises cost was $ 17.33 billion merely in America. Later on a comprehensive study was conducted by KPMG ( 1995 ) , utilizing sample of 250 UK organisation. They find out approximately 62 % organisation had at least one major package failure.Symptoms of Software Crisis:The research worker finds out many symptoms of package crises. Some ( Conte et al,1986 ) have highlighted a crisis within the package industry. Glass ( 1998 ) points out that there is no comprehensive study analyzing what per centum of package undertaking fail. Cost, bringing clip and quality are identified as the three symptoms to measure the success or failure of a undertaking of a undertaking. Anecdotal grounds is used to foreground the symptoms and primary causes of undertaking failure which engenders serious concerns. Researcher happen out the symptoms which lead to package undertaking failure are rather common like cost over from appraisal, money wasted on ill-planned, mismanagement and delayed InformationTechonology undertakings which leads to project failure.Primary Causes of Software Crisis:Charette ( 2005 ) and Glass ( 1998 ) , discovered many primary causes of package undertaking failure. These are under below.Unspecified aims and bad planning:Glass ( 1998 ) happen out the chief ground of package undertaking failure are the aims were non specified and they did n't made proper planning and appraisal need resources before they start any undertaking and which cause the package undertaking failure.Inadequate Methodology:They used unequal methods for undertaking direction and did non cognize the proper methodological analysis of different undertakings.Insufficient senior staff and undertaking complexness:There were less experient staff and largely the undertakings were really complicated.Therefor e, it was hard for new and junior staff to manage the undertaking complication.Hardware/Software job:Poor public presentation of the providers. Those who supply the hardware and package some clip they create job which leads to package crisis. There are many more causes which create job and do the package undertaking like stakeholder political relations, commercial force per unit area and unmanaged hazard etc.Decision:It is concluded that the symptoms and causes of the package undertaking failure, many factors involved in the crisis but the chief thing it had to be done before start any of the undertaking is that analysts should implement it or use it in a limited country, after the test if it is win so they should use as a whole. It is need to re analyze the package development phenomenon so that it can bring forth better consequences in future.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Answering the five cases Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Answering the five cases - Assignment Example I can also step in where they are defeated and cover my own medical bills. 3. I will warn the employee against such behaviour and demand for an apology from them, failure of which could result to serious disciplinary action against them. I will then write an apology letter to the customer conveying sincere regret to such despicable behaviour. I will seek to assure them that the employee has either been warned or disciplined according and that behaviour won’t happen again in the future. 4. Rules in any examination does not permit talking or sharing of answers. I will therefore call to attention the nearest examiner/instructor and let them know of the unfortunate behaviour. It will be under the discretion of the instructor to determine the discipline the two students should receive. 5. Let him know that the business is family oriented and that the rule of conduct does not tolerate gay-like behaviours. They should therefore abstain from public display of such behaviour or otherwise risk dismissal from the

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Teacher Professional Learning and Development Assignment

Teacher Professional Learning and Development - Assignment Example This should be useful particularly to those who are involved in helping teachers develop the professional skills they need to teach challenging curricula to diverse students, including students who typically have not achieved well in some of our educational systems. There are four out ten important understandings that arise from the evidence base. These include notwithstanding the influence of factors such as socio-economic status, home, and community, student learning is strongly influenced by what and how teachers teach. Teaching is complex and teachers’ moment-by-moment decisions about lesson content and process are shaped by multiple factors, not just the agendas of those looking for changes in practice. Such factors include teachers’ knowledge and their beliefs about what is important to teach, how students learn, and how to manage student behavior and meet external demands. It is important to create conditions that are responsive to the ways in which teachers lear n. A recent overview of the research identified the following as important for encouraging learning: engaging learners’ prior conceptions about how the world works; developing deep factual and conceptual knowledge, organized into frameworks that facilitate retrieval and application; and promoting met cognitive and self-regulatory processes that help learners define goals and then monitor their progress towards them. Professional learning is strongly determined by the context in which the teacher practices. This is usually the classroom, which, in turn, is strongly influenced by the wider school culture and the community, and society in which the school is located. Teachers’ daily experiences in their practice context determine their understandings, and their understandings determine their experiences. The focus of this particular research is on the conditions for professional learning and development that impact positively on valued student outcomes (Sleezer, 2002). 1. Focus on valued student outcomes Professional learning experiences that focus on the relationship between particular teaching activities and valued student outcomes are associated with positive impacts on those outcomes. Research findings The major factor influencing whether professional learning activities have a positive impact on outcomes for students is the extent to which those outcomes form the rationale for, and ongoing focus of, teacher engagement. Such focus requires teachers to understand the links between particular teaching activities, the ways different groups of students respond, and what their students actually learn. In addition, success needs to be defined not in terms of teacher mastery of new strategies but in terms of the impact that changed practice has on valued outcomes. Because teachers work in such varied contexts, there is no guarantee that any specific approach to teaching will have the desired outcomes for students. Therefore, it is important to keep pro gress towards

Visual Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Visual Media - Essay Example There is no overt action. The man is gently touching the woman as he finds her desirable and the woman is coyly maintaining certain distance. She appears hesitant as if she is trying something new. The first time look is evident on her face. These tactics have been deliberately employed to convey that while with Romance, you can have romance; it will be love and not just sex. This subtle differentiation between sex and romance has given the ad its classy value. The second message you get is that RL Romance is not for everyone. It's not a common-folks item. It is meant for people with certain tastes and this is evident from the clothing of the two models, however little they are wearing. The white clothing, the stylishly done hair and the serious expression on the face of the female model are done to maintain certain distance from the audience. It is not an-everyone perfume and it has to be portrayed as such. The moment the two models share is something private and is in complete contrast with the light flirtatious moment shared by the two models in CK ad (discussed below). This ad is employing propaganda by different techniques with most prominent being Scarlet Johansson's presence. The woman represents a variety of things including being a young, talented and sexy star. Using a star in an advertisement lends immense power to the brand without requiring any real proof. People are likely to think that since Scarlet Johansson is using this perfume, may be I should to. It has the testimonial value as well as the bandwagon value. Scarlet is 'cool, chic and happening' and if you want to be like her, use Eternity Moment. The ad uses a simple line too that says, "A moment can change everything". Indirectly the audience is being told that they should not underestimate the value of each moment while highlighting the significance of the product's name. the audience is also being reminded of the value of being prepared. In an important moment, if you are wearing the right perfume, that can change everything. Now this may or may not be true. But the ad takes it f or granted that we believe it to be true. Again like Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein is also a well-known brand. Definitely the perfume may not be used by the common folks but the ad gives you a feeling that it can be or rather should be used by everyone who wants to turn an ordinary moment into something exceptional. Capturing Johansson with a girlish grin on her face gives the ad a common-folks value. She appears genuinely happy like any ordinary girl in love. Most women would be able to connect with her and the expansive of her happy soul. The model is having a pleasant experience and this is something everyone can relate to. The same could not be said of the Ralph Lauren ad that maintains a certain stiffness of manner to exude class and sophistication. Interesting both these advertisements lack color. They are done in black and white with a hint of color in the perfume bottle. This color is almost non-existent in RL Romance ad while it is

Monday, August 26, 2019

Lerisure and Tourism Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Lerisure and Tourism Marketing - Essay Example The principal analysis reveals that property in most of Darebin's suburbs is historically undervalued and this continues to attract residents and others from neighbouring regions to come and settle in the city. This trend is not strong enough to enable vigorous socio-economic development of the city, which is found to be disadvantaged in comparison to many other municipal council areas of Australia. So the report prepares a marketing strategy whereby this unique advantage Darebin has is utilised. The principal component of the strategy is to induce existing and lure outside investors, builders, architects, designers, property agents and others related to the trade to develop property in Darebin so that built-up space at attractive prices can be sold to outsiders. This venture is expected to generate employment as well as other local economic activities that can, together, benefit Darebin's disadvantaged population and uplift them to a higher status. Also, finally, the report states that it has been thoroughly responsible in seeking solutions that will benefit the existing population within Darebin instead of pushing them off somewhere else while replacing them with affluent outsiders.Contents 1. Introduction 4 1.1 SWOT Analysis: Significance 4-6 2. The Macro-Environment 6 2.1 Darebin Trends 7-9 2.2 Special Note 9 3. SWOT Analysis 9-11 4. Key Marketing Objectives 11 5. Conclusion 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 Word Count: 2892 (Including headings) 1. Introduction The City of Darebin may be taken to be a large municipality located in the northern suburbs of Melbourne in the state of Victoria, Australia. It is a local government area and comprises of 53 square kilometers (Darebin, Wikipedia, 2006). The city had a population of approximately 131,000 people (2002 Census) but the population is increasing. The local council website notes that though the area has been governed since the earliest times when white settlers set up their homes in the greater Melbourne area the modern City of Darebin was formed in June, 1994. It was formed by the amalgamation of the Cities of Preston, Northcote and small parts of the Cities of Coburg, Heidelberg and Diamond Valley (Darebin City Council, History Section, 2006). Since it is germane to the purpose of the report the exact geographical location of the municipality is being given. As mentioned earlier the city lies to the immediate north of Melbourne within the inner and middle metropolitan areas. It is bounded in the south by Heidelberg Road, to the north by Mahoneys Road, in the east by Darebin Creek and in the west by Merri Creek. It is comprised of seven principal suburbs of Kingsbury,

Sunday, August 25, 2019

ANALYZING SPSS(PASW) SOFTWARE PART 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

ANALYZING SPSS(PASW) SOFTWARE PART 2 - Essay Example Lack of defined disposal mechanisms has led to environmental pollution that is the cause of today’s environmental degradation. The amount of money required to clean up the environments is such a burden since the number of players in the market have reduced market share of even the world largest information and Communication Company. To be able to maintain business value, the future for the players in the market remains in working on establishing sustainability through collaboration. Sustainable business value is thus achievable through established global environments that enhance economic development that are necessary for a global sustainable future. This thesis seeks to answer the following question: How can businesses leaders in the telecommunications industry shape the future of the telecommunications industry to arrive at a sustainable business value? Telecommunication industry has been one of the fastest growing industries in the globe (Goggin, 2014). The number of users has been on the rise by each passing day. In high population countries like India, 10 million people subscribe to telecommunication services each month (Prasad, Dixit, & Nee, 2010). Telecommunication has thus become an influential piece of technology that many people can no longer do without. Technology, has managed to bring people together to either work together or just use the services offered. However, with step in growth of the industry, the ecosystem gets the greatest effect. The methods of disposal of these gadgets have not been established for a long time. The e-waste that ends up in the landfills have proved to be more hazardous than any other waste ever know. Thus the needs for activities that focus on global network of companies have grown from a luxury to a necessity for survival of a player in the telecommunication industry as well as environmental conservation. Many key players have thus

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Reduce and Address the Issue on Gang Violence in Chicago Research Paper

Reduce and Address the Issue on Gang Violence in Chicago - Research Paper Example From the report it is clear that  gang violence has reduced both in low and high crime areas, there remain regions where violent crime rate is stile unacceptably high. Some of the gangs specialize in expressive violence while others specialize in instrumental violence.  This discussion stresses that Chicago registered the most murders than any other city in America. The rising homicide rate is attributed to the influx of illegal guns and gang violence. Gang violence is connected to disputes and turf wars and it seems that the problem largely affects the geographically and socially isolated neighborhoods. The incidences of gang violence mainly affect those living in the West and the South sides of the city. Although incidences of gang violence have declined considerably, the city is faring badly compared to other gang-infested cities such as Los Angeles and New York. This paper examines the history, prevalence and the solutions to the problem of gang violence in the Chicago city. The paper also examines how gang violence can be reduced through follow-up re-entry programs and community prosecution strategies.  The origin of gangs can be traced to the East Coast in 1820s and thereafter, in the Midwestern regions including Chicago and Los Angeles. The problem of gang violence in the United States is as old as humanity itself. The New York City is considered as a haven of the gangs in the country, and the emergence of gang-like groups began in late 1700s.

Friday, August 23, 2019

The trial and death of socrates (book by Plato) Essay

The trial and death of socrates (book by Plato) - Essay Example Having lived at the end of the Golden Age, Socrates arose as a response to the structural changes occurring within the city at that time. Living a very simple life by sacrificing wealth and politics, Socrates decided to stay among the common people of Athens to challenge everyone’s intellects. In this way, he became a founder of philosophy: choosing instead to look at the nature of knowledge, instead of what can best be said to belong to our current state of knowledge. Socrates is the protagonist of the Apology and the Crito. Although he is a simple man, he is presented to the jury in Athens as a man of great intellectual power, despite his claim that he in fact knows nothing. Despite his common appearance, Socrates is interested in investigating ethical matters, particularly those related to the state and, in this case, related to why the city identifies him as a troublesome element. In the death scene of the Phaedo (115b-118a), Socrates demonstrates himself to be accepting o f his fate, which he resigns to accept in the Crito (49b10-11). In the Phaedo, Crito asks Socrates how he would like to be buried, to which he responds, â€Å"In any way that you like; only you must get hold of me, and take care that I do not walk away from you† (115c). In the face of execution, Socrates retains his old-timey kind of charm and joking demeanor. This kind of joke is also meant to represent his lack of respect for the system that has found him guilty of trumped-up charges, even though he has committed himself to follow the dictates of the court. In the time leading up to his execution, Socrates engages in this dialogue with Crito, during which Crito remarks on his admiration of Socrates’ level-headedness in defending himself against the threat of death (43a). Socrates, having no knowledge of this person, does not react unkindly to his guests and admits that because of his advanced age, he will not react too strongly to such a situation. Crito then tells S ocrates that he has come at this early hour to give him the opportunity to escape, which creates a philosophical and a practical problem for Socrates, who disagrees with the outcome of the trial and their sentence, but at the same time does not want to disregard the nature of the relationship between man and state. Crito’s appeals to Socrates are moral in nature, such that they appeal to his virtues. For instance, Crito remarks that not fleeing from an unjust death would be cowardly in the face of injustice (45d). Socrates has, according to Crito, an obligation to his children that he would not respect if he voluntarily remains in his cell and receives an execution. Socrates demonstrates the nature of his character by not responding to the practical problem that Crito has posed. By offering him a way out, Crito has made remaining in his cell a voluntary act on the eve of execution. In response, Socrates expresses his disrespect for people who do not act rationally and that be cause he has virtues, such as the ability to recognize justice, he is electing to stay in his cell (47c). He is not thinking about the goods that typical Athenian men, like those who brought him to trial, think about: money, reputation, and political stance. These external goods are the values of those men who do

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Improving Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Ionic Liquids Essay Example for Free

Improving Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Ionic Liquids Essay Previously we showed that CO2 could be used to extract organic molecules from ionic liquids without contamination of the ionic liquid. Consequently a number of other groups demonstrated that ionic liquid/CO2 biphasic systems could be used for homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Large differences in the solubility of various gases in ionic liquids present the possibility of using them for gas separations. More recently we and others have shown that the presence of CO2 increases the solubility of other gases that are poorly soluble in the ionic liquid phase. Therefore, a knowledge and understanding of the phase behavior of these ionic liquid/ CO2 systems is important. With the aim of finding ionic liquids that improve CO2 solubility and gaining more information to help us understand how to design CO2-philic ionic liquids, we present the low- and high-pressure measurements of CO2 solubility in a range of ionic liquids possessing structures likely to increase the solubility of CO2. We examined the CO2 solubility in a number of ionic liquids with systematic increases in fluorination. We also studied nonfluorinated ionic liquids that have structural features known to improve CO2 solubility in other compounds such as polymers, for example, carbonyl groups and long alkyl chains with branching or ether linkages. Results show that ionic liquids containing increased fluoroalkyl chains on either the cation or anion do improve CO2 solubility when compared to less fluorinated ionic liquids previously studied. It was also found that it was possible to obtain similar, high levels of CO2 solubility in nonfluorous ionic liquids. In agreement with our previous results, we found that the anion frequently plays a key role in determining CO2 solubility in ionic liquids. Introduction The phase behavior of CO2 with ionic liquids (ILs) is important for the development of several potential IL applications. Since we first showed that CO2 was soluble in ILs and could be used to extract organic solutes,1-3 IL/CO2 systems have been demonstrated for various catalytic reactions.4-17 In some cases, CO2 is used to extract the product from the IL, leaving behind the catalyst and the IL for reuse. Others have adopted IL/CO2 continuous flow systems, where CO2 is used to deliver the substrates to the IL/catalyst phase and extract the products. Recently we also confirmed that CO2 could increase the solubility of gases normally not very soluble on their own in ILs.18 We found that the solubility of CH4 and O2 increased in ILs even at low partial pressures of CO2. Others studying the enantioselective hydrogenation of imines using a cationic iridium catalyst in an IL/CO2 biphasic system found that the catalyst performance was increased dramatically in the IL when CO2pressure was added.19 High-pressure NMR showed that the addition of CO2 increased the amount of H2 dissolved in the IL. The authors believed that the catalyst, which was known to be sensitive to H2 availability, could operate more effectively due to an increase in H2 concentration in the IL along with a decrease in viscosity of the IL with added CO2. Another * Corresponding author. Telephone: (574) 631-5847. Fax: (574) 6318366. E-mail: [emailprotected] †  Current address: EaStCHEM, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, U.K. E-mail: [emailprotected] †¡ Current address: Intermediates RD, Invista S.a.r.l, Sabine River Laboratory B568, P. O. Box 1003, Orange, TX 77631-1003. potential application of ILs that several research groups along with our group have examined is the separation of CO2 from gas mixtures.20-22 To design and optimize processes using ILs, it is essential that we understand the important factors that determine CO2 solubility. It is possible to design many potential ILs; therefore, the systematic study of different cation/anion combinations will allow us to decipher the key properties in making CO2-philic ILs. To date we have studied the solubility of CO2 in a range ofcommonly used ILs.2,23-29 We found that there were a number of factors that controlled the CO2 solubility in the chosen ILs, both cation and anion related.26 Of the ionic liquids studied, the anion played the biggest role in CO2 solubility, a fact that was supported by a recent X-ray diffraction study by Kanakubo et al.30 Anions that contain fluoroalkyl groups were found to have some of the highest CO2 solubilities, and as the quantity of fluoroalkyl groups increased, the CO2 solubility also increased. The previous studies showed CO2 solubility for 1-butyl3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]+) based ILs at 60  °C increased in the order nitrate ([NO3]-) tetrafluoroborate ([BF4]-) dicyanamide ([DCA]-) ? hexafluorophosphate ([PF6]-) ? trifluoromethanesulfonate ([TfO]-) bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Tf2N]-) tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ([methide]-). For the cations, there were two factors thatinfluenced the CO2 solub ility. The biggest effect was seen in increasing alkyl chain length on the cation. For a given cation, the CO2 solubility increased with increasing chain length, and these results are consistent with those reported elsewhere.31-35

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Rhetorical Question Essay Example for Free

Rhetorical Question Essay In the story â€Å"Nineteen Thirty-Seven† Edwidge Danticat presents Josephine, a Haitian girl who often visits her mother at the Port Au Prince prison. In the process of Josephine’s visits the reader comes to understand that pain surrounds her life. Not only does it surround her life, however, pain is a prominent factor in all of her contemporaries’ existence. The oppressed nature of Josephine, her mom, and the woman of the river cause them to create an artificial sense of hope for their life full of suffering. Suffering seems to be a common component inherent of all Haitian women. This can be seen when Manman states â€Å"We were saved from the tomb of this river when she was still in my womb. You spared us both, her and me, from this river where I lost my mother† (Danticat, 40). Josephine was born on the day of the massacre by El Generalissimo’s soldiers representing that she is birthed from pain, as a lot of Haitians died that day. One of those who died was Manman’s mother, in an effort to alleviate her pain Manman takes Josephine as a replacement of the existence of her mother. Not only does Josephine emanate from suffering yet she carries the connation of false hope, as life can’t be replaced. The effect of suffering is once again seen when Manman mentions â€Å"Keep the Madonna when I am gone†¦Maybe you will have some flesh to console you. But if you don’t, you will always have the Madonna† (Danticat, 43). Once again Josephine’s mom creates hope for her daughter. Given that pain surrounds her life, her mother hopes that Josephine can deal with her suffering in the same way that she dealt with her mom’s death. The aforementioned quotes emphasize the repetitive occurrence of yet different pain Haitian women particularly experience. Danticat, Edwidge. Nineteen Thirty-Seven. Krik? Krak! New York: Vintage, 1996. 33-49. Print.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Concepts of Database Systems

Concepts of Database Systems Database system Concepts of database management-3rd edition Philip j.pratt .2000 A database is a structure that contains information about many different categories of information and about the relationships between the categories. Premiere products are a distributer of appliances, housewares. The company has used spread sheet software to maintain customer, order, inventory and sales. The premiere products database, for example, will contain information about sales, reps, customers, orders and parts. It will also provide facts that relate sales reps to the customers they represent and customers to the orders they currently have placed. With the use of database, employees can enter the number of a particular order and find out which customer placed the orders, as well as which parts were ordered. An entity is a person place object event of idea for which you want to store and process data. An attribute is a characteristic or property of an entity. For the entity for example the list of attributes might include such things as car colour and size. Rep. Rep. no. Last name First name Street City State Zip Commission Rate model Attributes An attribute is also called a field or column in many database systems. A relationship is an association between entities. There is an association between reps and customers, for example at premiere products. A rep is associated with all of his or her customers and a customer is associated with its rep. One-to-many relationship Each rep is associated with many customers, but each customer is associated with only one rep.ÂÂ   in this type of relationship, the word many is used differently than in everyday English; it might not always indicate a large a large number. In this context, for example, the many means that a rep can be associated with any number of customers. This is, a given rep can be associated with zero, one, Or more customers. A database is a structure that can store information about multiple types of entities, the attributes of those entities, and the relationship among the entities. A database, however, is much more than a file. Unlike a typical data file, a database can store information about multiple entities. There is also another difference. A database holds information about the relationship among the various entities. Not only will premiere products database have information about reps and customers, it also will hold information relating reps to the customers they service, customers to orders, parts to orders and so on. REDUNDANCY It is the duplication of data or the storing of the same data in more than one place. In the orders spreadsheet, redundancy occurs in the customer name column because the name of a customer is stored in more than one place. What problems does redundancy cause? It wastes space because you are storing the same data in multiple places. The extra space results in larger spreadsheet that require more space in memory and on disk and that take longer to save and open. When you need to change data, redundancy also makes your changes more difficult and time consuming. Finally redundancy can lead to conflicts. For eg. If you enter someones name and address in different columns than it will take time to enter and there is chance of making mistakes.

Robert Penn Warren: Distinguished American Writer and Poet :: Biography Biographies Essays

Robert Penn Warren: Distinguished American Writer and Poet Robert Penn Warren, born in Guthrie, Kentucky in 1905, was one of the twentieth century's most eminent American writers. He was a distinguished novelist and poet, literary critic, essayist, short story writer, and coeditor of numerous textbooks. He was also a founding editor of The Southern Review, a journal of literary criticism and political thought. The primary influences on Robert Warren's career as a poet were probably his Kentucky boyhood, and his relationships with his father and his maternal grandfather. As a boy, Warren spent many hours on his grandfather's farm, absorbing stories of the Civil War and the local tobacco wars between growers and wholesalers, the subject of his first novel, Night Riders. His grandfather, Thomas Gabriel Penn, had been a calvary officer in the Civil War and was well-read in both military history and poetry, which he sometimes recited for Robert. Robert's father was a banker who had once had aspirations to become a lawyer and a poet. Because of economic troubles, and his responsibility for a family of half-brothers and sisters when his father died, Robert Franklin Warren forsook his literary ambitions and devoted himself to more lucrative businesses. Robert Warren did not always have ambitions to become a writer, in fact, one of his earlier dreams was to become an adventurer on the high seas. This fantasy might have indeed come about, for his father intended to get him an appointment to Annapolis, had it not been for a childhood accident in which he lost sight in one of his eyes. Warren was an outstanding student but there were also many books at home, and he savored reading. His father at one time aspired to be a poet. His grandfather Penn, with whom he spent much time when he was young, was an exceptional storyteller and greatly influenced young Red. But both of these men whom he loved had in some sense failed to achieve. By contrast, Warren was determined to achieve, to be successful. During his college years at Vanderbilt, the sense of being physically maimed, as well as the fear sympathetic blindness in his remaining good eye became almost unbearable. At Vanderbilt University he met Allen Tate, John Crowe Ransom, Donald Davidson, and others interested in poetry. As part of The Fugitives, a private group that met off campus, he delved deeply into poetry, and his first poems were published in their short-lived quarterly. Warren had a remarkable capacity for friendship, and he was in touch with these men all of their lives. For years Tate was "first critic" of his poetry.

Monday, August 19, 2019

My Good and Bad Habits :: Personal Narrative Essays

My Good and Bad Habits A habit can be many things, some good, some not so good. Everyone has habits that they would like to change and maybe improve upon. I believe the majority of habits I have are good ones but some are not. These bad habits are the ones I will talk about. Smoking is a bad habit that is not only harmful to myself, but also to the people around me, namely my wife and children. They are the ones that receive the most harmful and the most concentrated amounts of smoke. I inhale through a filter, my wife and children do not. Another of my irritating and potentially harmful habits is my ability to let anger build up inside and redirect it to another source. The main reason that I say that this is potentially harmful is that when a man lets his anger build up over an extended length of time he eventually becomes a bomb, ready to explode at any time. This anger could show up at any time and be redirected toward anything, such as cars, other people, or things in the home. After the birth of my first child, I had to learn to develop constructive ways to vent anger. One of those ways was to go off alone, count to ten, and think about what it was that made me angry. After I discovered the root of my anger, I often asked myself, "Will it do me or anyone else any good to be angry?", and, "Will being angry do anything to solve the problem", and the answer to both questions was usually no. By the time I had done the walking and thinking, I was usually not angry anymore. Even in light of these habits I believe the worst habit is my use of foul language. I know that "four letter words" are only a sign of a limited vocabulary but old habits die hard. I believe I have gotten better after my son was born, due to the fact that it seemed he could repeat the "s" word more plainly than he could say "ball" and usually at the most inopportune times.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Negative Effects of Eminem’s Lyrics Essay -- Music

The Negative Effects of Eminem’s Lyrics Eminem is a name that most Americans have grown to know about in the last year. Not only for his music, but for the controversy that his music brings. Many people are offended by his lyrics and they believe that he should be regulated in some way. In my paper I will give some background on Eminem, some examples of his lyrics, different points of view, and my personal beliefs on this situation. Eminem is a character whose real name is Marshall Mathers III. He was born in Kansas City and traveled between there and Detroit with his mother during a rough divorce in his early life. He lived a pretty rough life, changing schools and friends constantly. He grew up rapping with African American friends and was always interested in rapping. Although he's Caucasian, he has fit right in with Dr. Dre and his partners. Eminem had until just recently been married to a young woman named Kim. Kim and Marshall were high school sweethearts but have had a really rough marriage. They have a five year old child named Hailie, who which Eminem attributes much of his success and mentions in several of his songs. Dr. Dre discovered Eminem and signed a contract with him. Eminem's debut album "Infinite" was released in 1996 (Eminem). Several of Eminem's lyrics are considered "hate lyrics" by many organizations, individuals, and companies. Many of these people consider his songs hate lyrics because of his repeated use of the word "faggot." On the "Marshall Mathers LP" album Eminem mentions "fag" or "faggot" thirteen times in eighteen songs (Glaad). Also, some of the lyrics are very graphic and violent towards women. A few examples of songs that have anti-gay lyrics are "Kill You," "Who Knew," "Skit: Steve ... ...tions/documents/index.html?record=2500 Garry, Joan M. "From The Desk Of Glaad Executive Director." 2 January 2001. "Glaad Action Alert: Eminem's Hate Lyrics." "History of Glaads Work Regarding Eminem." July 2000. "History of Glaads Work Regarding Eminem." August 2000. "History of Glaads Work Regarding Eminem." September 2000. Moody, Nekesa Mumbi. "Thousands Protest Grammy Nods For Eminem." 5 January 2000. MTV News Archieve. "Eminem: I Came To Make A Statement." 23 February 2001

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Objectives of Punishment Essay

The objective of punishment in the criminal justice system it to enforce a particular penalty on a person who is in violation of the law; such enforcement should have an effect so great that it will deter that person from continuing to violate the law and prevent other offenses (Foster, 2006). Punishment is based on four major objectives; deterrence, incapacitation, reformation, and rehabilitation. Deterrence is based on discouraging a person from committing a criminal act, the pain and fear of punishment are enough to scare a person from following through with such acts. Incapacitation is achieved by protecting society from the criminal by incarcerating the person so he or she can no longer be a threat to others. Reformation is the act of changing a person while he or she is incarcerated in order to help a person become a law abiding citizen. This happens through programs that are put in place to help a person understand the law and that it is there to protect society. Rehabilitatio n is gained by therapeutic and educational programs that help the offender become more aware of the rules and regulations so he or she can be prepared to be a part of the society again. The rehabilitation process may help the offender find a job so that he or she may feel as if they are a part of society and this is a more permanent solution to this issue; whereas, reformation may be a temporary fix to the problem (Foster, 2006 pg. 67). Punishment assists with achieving institutional objectives in the criminal justice system by offering and incorporating programs that can deter criminals from further committing crime. Some of these programs may consist of therapeutic, educational, and work-related punishments that help reform and rehabilitate the offender; by doing this, the criminal justice system is showing the offender how to become an active part of society while knowing right from wrong. These programs can have temporary or long-term effects on the offender, either way; they are productive in refining justice. Reference Foster, B. (2006). Corrections: The Fundamentals. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Beer’s Law Lab Report Essay

Abstract: The Beer’s law lab was conducted to determine the optimal wavelength of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O with the use of spectrometry. The results determined that the optimal wavelength to study the absorbance of this salt was 500nm. It also demonstrated how transmittance of light and absorbance of light are inversely proportional because absorbance is calculated by multiplying transmittance by a negative log. Introduction: When one is studying chemicals, there are many important factors of significance. The color of a chemical is a useful tool in its study. The light one sees produced by a chemical is the result of both reflection and absorbance of wavelengths. The wavelengths that are absorbed by a chemical are not visualized. The wavelengths that are reflected back are the colors that one sees. When chemicals are diluted in water, their colors also become diluted. As the chemical is diluted, the molecules spread apart. The more dilute the solution, the further apart the molecules. As the molecules spread, the color that is reflected becomes less intense because some of the wavelengths are able to pass through the solution without encountering any of the solute. The more wavelengths that are able to pass through a solution without encountering any of the solute, the greater the transmittance. The transmittance can be mathematically calculated by dividing the amount of light that exited the solution (IT) by the amount of original intensity (IO). That value is then multiplied by 100 to give the percent transmittance (%T) Beer’s Law is used to relate and compares the amount of light that has passed through something to the substances it has passed through. The Law is represented by A=abc. â€Å"A† is the absorbance of a solution. The â€Å"a† represents the absorption constant of the solution being tested. The â€Å"b† represents the thickness of the solution in centimeters, and â€Å"c† represents the solution’s molarity or concentration. The â€Å"A† can be calculated by using the negative log of the transmittance (T).   The lab experiment conducted used the salt Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O. The Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O  was diluted in distilled water to four different molarities. The most concentrated solution was used to determine the optimal wavelength to study the salt by measuring the transmittance of the Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O with twenty different wavelengths of light. Once the optimal wavelength was concluded, the transmittance of the less concentrated Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O solutions was also measured. The measurements of the less concentrated solutions was to determine the absorbance constant, â€Å"a†. Finally, the transmittance of an unknown concentration of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O solution was measured and molarity was determined based on the absorbance constant determined earlier in the experiment. Procedure: A test tube was prepared with 0.1 M solution of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O in 10mL of distilled water. Half of the .1M solution, 5mL, was drawn up into a pipette and put into another test tube with 5mL of deionized water to make a 0.05 M solution. Half of the 0.05 M solution, 5mL was drawn into a pipette and put into a test tube with 5mL of deionized water to make 0.025 M solution. Half of the 0.025 M solution, 5mL, was drawn into a pipette and put into a test tube with 5mL of deionized water to make 0.0125 M solution. A test tube of 10mL of deionized water was also prepared. The bubbles on all test tubes were removed by tapping on the outside of the test tube. The outside of the tubes were dried off and any fingerprints were removed with paper towels and placed into a test tube rack. An absorbance spectrometer was zeroed by measuring the transmittance at 400nm with no test tubes in the spectrometer. The spectrometer was then calibrated to 100 percent transmittance with the test tube of deionized water. The deionized water was removed from the spectrometer and the 0.1 M solution was put inside the spectrometer. The transmittance of the solution was recorded and the solution was removed. The wavelength on the spectrometer was changed to 410nm and the deionized water was placed back into the spectrometer and the transmittance was calibrated to 100 percent. The deionized water was replaced with 0.1 M solution and the transmittance was recorded. This process was repeated twenty times with the wavelength increasing by 10nm consecutively until the last wavelength, 600nm, was  measured. It was necessary to calibrate the spectrometer between each change in wavelength. Every change in nanometers had to be measured and calibrated at 100 percent with the control of deionized water. This maintained accuracy when the transmittance of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O solutions measured. Based on the data gathered, the optimal wavelength was determined and the spectrometer was set to that wavelength. The transmittance was set to 100 with the deionized water. The 0.1 M solution replaced the deionized water in the spectrometer chamber and the transmittance was recorded. This process was repeated with 0.05 M, 0.025 M, and 0.0125 M solutions and the transmittance was calibrated to 100 between each solution with the deionized water. Finally, a Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O solution with an unknown molarity was provided (unknown â€Å"B†). The wavelength of the spectrometer was not changed. The deionized water was placed in the chamber and calibrated to 100 percent transmittance. The deionized water was removed and replaced with a test tube containing unknown â€Å"B†. The transmittance was recorded to determine what the molarity was. Data: After the solutions had been completed, the transmittance was measured at 10nm intervals from 400nm to 600nm. The measurements were determine the wavelength to best study Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O. Higher transmittance demonstrated less absorption of the wavelength and lower transmittance demonstrated higher absorption of the wavelength. Discussion: Beer’s Law is a law that demonstrates that the absorbance of light at a certain wavelength is directly proportional to the concentration or molarity of a solution. This was apparent with the naked eye. When making the solutions, 0.291 moles of was added to a test tube with 10mL of deionized water to make a 0.1 M solution. By taking 5mL out of the solution and mixing it with 5mL of deionized water, the number of moles was halved which made the second solution a 0.05 M solution. When the process had been repeated, it was apparent that the solutions had been diluted based on the color of the solutions in the test tubes. The 0.1 M solution was absorbing more light and was a deep rose color. As the solutions became more dilute, the concentration of the visible color diminished as less light was absorbed to a very pale translucent pink in the 0.0125 M solution. For the first part of the lab, the wavelengths 400-600nm were used. These wavelengths were used to determine the optimal wavelength when the most light was absorbed by the solution. It was important to calibrate the transmittance to 100% on the spectrometer with the deionized water because there were no solutes to absorb light. The spectrometer was then able to use that calibration to determine how much of the light was absorbed by the solution containing Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O by comparing the difference in how much light was absorbed by the detectors in the spectrometer. The spectrometer than calculated the percent transmittance (%T) and displayed the data in a percent. As was shown above in table 1 and graph 1, the %T started high and ended high with percentages over 90. The higher %T demonstrate less light was absorbed by the solution and therefore not the wavelength of light that is absorbed by Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O. Toward the middle of the data, 500nm and 510nm, the %T became substantially lower. This demonstrates that Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O absorbs wavelengths about 500nm. In the second part of the lab, the different molarity, or concentrations, of solution were measured for %T with a 500nm wavelength. The absorbance was calculated by using the negative log of T. This was done because T and A are inversely proportional. This was demonstrated in table 2 and table 3. These tables confirmed that as T decreases, A increases. The third part of the experiment used the point slope formula to determine a molarity based on an absorbance. The absorbance of light was dependent on the concentration of solute. The variables â€Å"A† and â€Å"y† are both dependent variables and were comparable to one another. The variable â€Å"x† and â€Å"c† were the independent variables. The variable â€Å"a† was the absorption constant and â€Å"b† was the thickness of the solution. In this case, â€Å"b† was equal to 1 cm. Graphs 2 and 3 demonstrated the plotted points and from that, excel calculated a trend line based on the point-slope formula. Graph 3 demonstrated how the estimated molarity of unknown â€Å"B†, based on the point-slope formula, fits the trend line. Conclusion: Beer’s Law was studied in this lab. The goals of this were to determine optimal wavelength absorption by Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O and determine transmittance and absorption from the data collected. The optimal wavelength absorption for Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O occurred at 500nm. The data also showed that while the transmittance and absorbance were indirectly proportional from one another, both variables were dependent on the concentration of the solution. Once the data had been collected and understood, an unknown concentration of solution was tested for transmittance. Based on the trend line formed from other concentrations of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O solutions, the molarity was easily calculated to be 0.048. Possible errors that may have occurred during this lab have to do with calibration of the spectrometer. The transmittance values changed second to second so if the timing was not perfect in measuring the samples, the transmittance would have been erroneous. The transmittances would have been too high (based on experimentation) so the absorbance rates would have been too low. This in turn would have caused the absorbance constant to be too low. If the absorbance constant was too low, the concentration of unknown â€Å"B† would have been calculated too high.