Saturday, November 30, 2019
This paper discusses the evolution of gender roles in American society. This paper discusses how the role women play in American society has changed since the beginning of the twentieth century. The writer compares the behavior of men and women a gym environment in order to study whether or not certain stereotypes can be found while both sexes are working out. The author interviews two athletes, one male and one female about their opinions regarding how men and women exercise, what equipment they use and why. This is followed by the authors observation of how hard men and women workout while using the cardio equipment in the gym. The author observes both the level of intensity and the interaction between the sexes in order to reach the conclusions presented in the paper. `Melanctha, Gail Collins editorial, Lindseys book on gender roles, and my anthropological study at the gym all suggest that women, in actuality, havent done as much in breaking the barriers of gender roles that they perhaps promised to do in the early 20th century. We will write a custom essay sample on Womens Role in Society or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As further evidence for this, one can look at a study conducted by Michael A. Messner in which he extensively interviewed thirty male athletes over a period of two years. He claims that these athletes all claim that their earliest experiences in sports are stories of an exclusively male world (1999, p.101). He also claims that, even today, many girls tend to shy away from competitive sports because they define themselves primarily through connection with others, [and] experience highly competitive situations (whether in organized sports or in other hierarchical institutions) as threats to relationships, and thus to their identities (1999, p. 106). Thus, my idea that gender roles of women are so stringent that they must even follow them in the gym is not too far fetched. If both magazines and schools tell women that they need to be a certain way, its no wonder that there is so much uproar when a woman tries to get an education or tries to play of sports. Of course, there still are th e Lisa Gillises of the world, but these women are still marginal to modern American culture. Yes, they are becoming less so, but these women still have a lot of work to do if they ever want to create a gender equal society.`
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
4 Ways to Use the Passive Voice in Italian In a sea of grammar to learn, you might be wondering, Ã¢â¬Å"What is the passive voice (la forma passiva), and why do I have to learn it?Ã¢â¬ Not sure what weÃ mean by active vs. passive voice? Active Voice: She rented a room in Bologna.Passive Voice: The room in Bologna was rented by her. In the active voice, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very clear who is doing the action, while in the passive, the subject is often cut out, leaving you to ask the question Ã¢â¬Å"by whom (was this action completed)? When is the passive voice typically used? Overall, itÃ¢â¬â¢s used when the action is more important than who is doing the action. Criticize the way something was done without blaming someone for itGive the facts of a situation or a story, typically in the newsOutline the way that something is done, like with guidelines, rules, or procedures Now that youÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with the types of situations you would use it in, here are the four formulas. FORMULA #1: Si verb (conjugated in 3rd person singular/plural) Non si possono imparare quattro lingue allo stesso tempo. - One cannot learn four languages at the same time.SÃ ¬, infatti, qua si vendono i supplÃ ¬. - Yes, in fact, here supplÃ ¬ is sold.Come ci si iscrive allÃ¢â¬â¢unversit allÃ¢â¬â¢estero? - How does one enroll in a foreign university?ÃË piÃ ¹ importante quello che si fa o quello che si pensa? - What is more relevant, what one thinks or what one does? In this formula, you take the passive particle Ã¢â¬Å"siÃ¢â¬ (not to be confused with the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"siÃ¢â¬ ) and follow it with a verb thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been conjugated in either the 3rd person singular or plural. FORMULA #2: Essere Past participle Tense: Il presente indicativo ACTIVE: Scrivo un articolo su come si usa la forma passiva.PASSIVE: LÃ¢â¬â¢ articolo su come si usa la forma passiva Ã ¨ scritto da me. Tense: Il passato prossimo Active: La mamma ha regalato un libro al bambino.Passive: Il libro Ã ¨ stato regalato al bambino dalla mamma. Tense: Il futuro Active: Giulio porter la torta.Ã Passive: La torta sar portata da Giulio. Tense: LÃ¢â¬â¢imperfetto ActiveLei preparava la cena.Passive: La cena era preparata da lei. FORMULA #3: Venire Past participle La scuola viene raccomandata da tutti gli studenti. - The school is recommended by all of the students.Questo libro verr utilizzato come prova nel processo. - This book will be used as evidence in the trial.Luca viene accompagnato a scuola tutti i giorni dalla nonna. Ã¢â¬â Luca is accompanied to school every day by his grandma. Also, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see this particular construction more often in formal situations, like legal proceedings or when discussing politics and finances. FORMULA #4: Dovere/Potere/Volere/Andare Past participle Dovere - To must, to have toÃ I pomodori devono essere piantati prima che la primavera abbia inizio. - Tomatoes should be planted before spring begins.Le preposizioni devono essere studiate accuratamente. - Prepositions must be studied very carefully.Il pagamento dovr essere effettuato entro il 31 dicembre. - The payment will have to be made before December 31st. Potere:Ã To be able to Questo obiettivo potr essere raggiunto soltanto attraverso una serie di compiti specifici. - This goal will only be reached through a series of specific tasks.La carne puÃ ² essere cucinata sul fornello o al forno. - The meat can be cooked on the stove or in the oven. Volere: To want Il bambino Ã ¨ stato fortemente voluto dai genitori. - The newborn has been strongly desired by the parents.LÃ¢â¬â¢osservanza della legge Ã ¨ voluta dal governo. - Law observance is required by the government. Andare: To goÃ In questo corso, i compiti vanno completati ogni giorno. - In this course, the homework must be completed each day.Il modulo va firmato. - The form must be signed.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Why the Articles of Confederation Failed The Articles of Confederation established the first governmental structure unifying the 13 colonies that had fought in the American Revolution. In effect, this document created the structure for the confederation of these newly minted 13 states. After many attempts by several delegates to the Continental Congress, a draft by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania was the basis for the final document, which was adopted in 1777. The Articles went into effect on March 1, 1781, after all, 13 states had ratified them. The Articles of Confederation lasted until March 4, 1789, when they were replaced by the U.S. Constitution. So, why did the Articles of Confederation fail after just eight years? In response to widespread antipathy toward a strong central government, the Articles of Confederation kept national government weak and allowed for the states to be as independent as possible. But almost soon as the Articles took effect, problems with this approach became apparent.Ã Strong States, Weak Central Government The purpose of the Articles of Confederation was to create a confederation of states whereby each state retained its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right... not... expressly delegated to the United States in Congress assembled.Ã Every state was as independent as possible within the central government of the United States, which was only responsible for the common defense, the security of liberties, and the general welfare. Congress could make treaties with foreign nations, declare war, maintain an army and navy, establish a postal service, manage Native American affairs, and coin money. But Congress could not levy taxes or regulate commerce. Because of widespread fear of a strong central government at the time they were written and strong loyalties among Americans to their own state as opposed to any national government during the American Revolution, the Articles of Confederation purposely kept the national government as weak as possible and the states as independent as possible. However, this led to many of the problems that became apparent once the Articles took effect.Ã Achievements Despite their significant weaknesses, under the Articles of Confederation the new United States won the American Revolution against the British and secured its independence; successfully negotiated an end to the Revolutionary War with the Treaty of Paris in 1783; and established the national departments of foreign affairs, war, marine, and treasury.Ã The Continental Congress also made a treaty with France in 1778, after the Articles of Confederation had been adopted by the Congress but before they had been ratified by all the states. Weaknesses The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation would quickly lead to problems that the Founding Fathers realized would not be fixable under the current form of government. Many of these issues were brought up during the Annapolis convention of 1786. These included the following:Ã Each state only had one vote in Congress, regardless of size.Congress did not have the power to tax.Congress did not have the power to regulate foreign and interstate commerce.There was no executive branch to enforce any acts passed by Congress.There was no national court system or judicial branch.Amendments to the Articles of Confederation required a unanimous vote.Laws required a 9/13 majority to pass in Congress.States could levy tariffs on other states goods. Under the Articles of Confederation, each state viewed its own sovereignty and power as paramount to the national good. This led to frequent arguments between the states. In addition, the states would not willingly give money to financially support the national government. The national government was powerless to enforce any acts that Congress passed. Further, some states began to make separate agreements with foreign governments. Almost every state had its own military, called a militia. Each state printed its own money. This, along with issues with trade, meant that there was no stable national economy.Ã In 1786, Shays Rebellion occurred in western Massachusetts as a protest against rising debt and economic chaos. However, the national government was unable to gather a combined military force among the states to help put down the rebellion, making clear a serious weakness in the structure of the Articles of Confederation. Gathering of the Philadelphia Convention As the economic and military weaknesses became apparent, especially after Shays Rebellion, Americans began asking for changes to the Articles. Their hope was to create a stronger national government. Initially, some states met to deal with their trade and economic problems together. However, as more states became interested in changing the Articles, and as national feeling strengthened, a meeting was set in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787. This became the Constitutional Convention. It was quickly realized that changes would not work, and instead, the entire Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced with a new U.S. Constitution that would dictate the structure of the national government.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Robinhood - Essay Example 2. Weaknesses: One of the notable weaknesses of this case is the type of associates Robin Hood has allowed into his organization. While he began allowing only men with a strong sense of justice and legitimate grievance with the sheriff into the organization, he veered from this policy. Believing that there was strength in numbers, he has allowed any individual to join; in these regards, itÃ¢â¬â¢s highly likely that a number of individuals in his organization are of questionable moral character and are more detrimental to the organization than beneficial. 3. Opportunities: There are a number of opportunities that Robin Hood and his organization have. The first of which is the control they have over the forest and its use as a route of transport. This has given Robin Hood and his men the ability to reap considerable property from theft and could potentially be utilized as a means of collecting consistent taxes from travelers. Another opportunity is the motivated nature of Robin HoodÃ¢â¬â¢s followers; many having legitimate grievances against the sheriff they will be more dedicated and willing to go to extremes to see that they succeed and the sheriff fails. Finally, the baronsÃ¢â¬â¢ growing resentment with Prince John and their attempt to conspire with Robin Hood is a solid opportunity. 4. Threats: The threats include the growing size of Robin HoodÃ¢â¬â¢s organization and the increasing difficulty in supplying the large number of these individuals with supplies. Another threat includes that of the potential of alienating the farmers that travel through the forest by charging them a tax. Finally, the last threat includes that of the potential that in conspiring against Prince John could result in failure and then cause greater amounts of retribution to be levied against Robin Hood and his band of men. There are a number of major issues that Robin must address. The first issue concerns whether
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Buyer Behaviour - Essay Example of viewing web site catalogue 32 30 24 Ease of downloading to device 24 35 15 Speed of download 16 28 8 Picture quality of downloaded movie 24 56 32 Cost of downloading movie 21 48 24 FishbeinÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis enables us to understand consumer preferences and thereby predict consumer behavior by understanding their preferences (Solomon et al 2009). Based on the above analysis, it provided us a snapshot of how the players in the Downloadable Film Services are faring in terms of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior towards them. It showed that Blockbuster is leading in almost all areas making it the dominant player in the UK market. It also gives NetFlix a hint however on which area should it improve for it to successfully launch in the UK. FishbeinÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis however is being critiqued to be an inaccurate basis for a product or service success in the market. Market entry such as NetFlixÃ¢â¬â¢s entry in the UK market involves a myriad and interplay of various marketing components that relying solely on FishbeinÃ¢â¬â¢s model to determine a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success of entry in a particular market would be inadequate. b. From the above data and from your Fishbein analysis make recommendations as to how Netflix can make its launch into the UK market more successfully. It is obvious that NetFlix lags behind its competitors in most of preferred ( except in cost and picture where it placed second at 24 to BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s 48). Inferring from FishbeinÃ¢â¬â¢s extended analysis, NetFlix has a lot of things to do if it intend to launch in UK successfully. First, it has to increase the number of titles it intend to rent out because it is perceived as lacking in this area. Second, it also needs to improve the interface of its website because end users find it complicated compared to its competitors based on the... It is obvious that NetFlix lags behind its competitors in most of preferred ( except in cost and picture where it placed second at 24 to BlockbusterÃ¢â¬â¢s 48). Inferring from FishbeinÃ¢â¬â¢s extended analysis, NetFlix has a lot of things to do if it intend to launch in UK successfully. First, it has to increase the number of titles it intend to rent out because it is perceived as lacking in this area. Second, it also needs to improve the interface of its website because end users find it complicated compared to its competitors based on the survey conducted. In addition to it, it has to improve the download speed of its server because it is perceived to be slow by its consumers. These factors and perceived weaknesses however are within the control of NetFlix of which it can readily addressed if it wanted to launch in the UK market successfully. 2. Porsche Blackberry phones a. Construct two Means End chains, one for the new Porsche Blackberry and another for the standard Blackberry. Means End Chain was originally a research that showed how peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values affect other aspect of their lives. Means End Chain was later expanded in business to understand how products interact with consumers and how specific values relate to consumption behavior (_____). Means End is divided into three constructs which are attributes, benefits and values that ultimately form the Chain.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Raising Our Native Sons Essay During the modern era, there was an overwhelming sense of optimism due to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s booming economy. There was a generalization that any citizen could work hard and become successful. However, this was not always the case in American society. Not everyone was given equal opportunity to thrive and succeed. This struggle was expressed in various literary works. In is novel Native Son, Richard Wright uses symbolism and irony to attack race issues and oppression in order to suggest that African Americans should have equal opportunity as whites. Throughout the novel, the protagonist, Bigger Thomas faces persecution and mistreatment simply because of the color of his skin. This racism appears early in the novel when a rat is encountered in his apartment. BiggerÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is disgusted by the gross creature she finds wandering in the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment. She proclaims her disgust and fear of the rat by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Lord, Lord, have mercyÃ¢â¬ ¦ that sonofabitch could cut your throatÃ¢â¬ (10). Through this duologue, the readers realize the harsh treatment and attitude the rat is receiving from BiggerÃ¢â¬â¢s family. They are scared and afraid of the rat, even though it means no harm and is merely trying to surviving with the living conditions it has been given. This demonstrates the overall racism towards blacks throughout the book as they are treated poorly and set up to fail. Like the rat, they are considered the lowest of the low who scavenge off others to survive. They are treated as a threat that only causes harm and need to be rid of. Also, Bigger faces racism head on at home. When playing with his friends, they Ã¢â¬Å"play whiteÃ¢â¬ . This game attempts to imitate the way whites act in society. During this game, Bigger and his friends unknowingly play out the white people has having superior power over the whites. This demonstrates that the racism is engraved into their heads, even at a young age. This sets them up to fail from a young age by starting them off as knowing that they are considered inferior to the white people. As the book continues, BiggerÃ¢â¬â¢s story becomes a point of attention in the south side of Chicago. The newspaper reporters are gathered around preparing to write an article on BiggerÃ¢â¬â¢s recent crime. They are collaborating withÃ each other in order to create the best story possible. One of the reporters says, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m slanting to the primitive negro who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be disturbed by white civilization.Ã¢â¬ The conversation continues with another reporter saying, Ã¢â¬Å"mention his foreign sounding nameÃ¢â¬ (201). The reporters are bouncing ideas off each other in order to write the best story for the readers. They mention how they are going to purposely define Bigger as a member of the African American community. This simple dialogue represents a much larger meaning within the novel. The reporters immediately turn to race in order to demonize Bigger. They call him Ã¢â¬Å"primitiveÃ¢â¬ and point out his name in an attempt to dissociate him from white society. This display of racism conveys the treatment of African Americans as outcasts of mainstream society. In addition to this, the media is only aiding in the continued validity of this stereotype. The more the media portrays blacks as animals and creatures, the more they are attacked by mainstream white society. As a result of this, the blacks are suppressed more and more, causing them to become more and more desperate. This vicious cycle of racism and oppression is ongoing as society feeds off the harsh portrayal of African Americans by the news outlets. Wright brings attention to the overwhelming effect that oppression can have on an individual or group. Bigger is continuously oppressed throughout his life. After attempting to escape from the police, Bigger is captured and brought down to the street from a rooftop. He was dragged down the stairs with his head banging on every step. He found himself lying on his back in the snow, pinned down by his wrists and surrounded by a circle of this faces. The angry crowd shouts at Bigger. Roars from the crowd include, Ã¢â¬Å"Kill Ã¢â¬ËimÃ¢â¬ ¦ Lynch Ã¢â¬ËimÃ¢â¬ ¦ Kill that ape!Ã¢â¬ (253). The crowd is angry at the black man who has caused so much trouble to the white folk. When they finally capture him, they all seem to unite as one when shouting insults as if they have has a triumph by holding down this young black man. This unity represented the overpowering superiority of white society over that of the blacks. Although each individual is their own person and saying their own comments, all Bigger sees and hears is an overbearing common force. To Bigger, he does not see the individuality in each white person; he sees them as all members of the same group all with a common goal of suppressing his dreams. In addition to seeing all whites as a blanket of oppression, he is almost shameful of himself when around them.Ã While sitting in an interview, he sits in Mr. DaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s office with him. Bigger enters the room and does not make eye contact. He stands in a corner with his head down, being careful not to make eye contact with Mr. Dalton. Bigger knows the role that he has in society as well as the room. He is careful to not do anything to upset the white man for fear of potential punishment. This shame is built off the fact that he has been repetitively told and taught that he is inferior. This repeated oppression leads Bigger to act differently around white people, further placing him in to the mold of a non-productive member of society. Bigger feels as if he has been able to make very few decisions for himself his entire life. This suppression was put on him right from the start. Once he realizes his fate and is sitting on his cot, he thinks back on his life. He had always lived with the premonition that he would be sentenced to the electric chair. Once this becomes a reality, Bigger feels a sense of freedom that he has never felt before. He wonders to himself why he Ã¢â¬Å"put himself into the shadow of the electric chair only to find out this? Had he been blind all along? But there was no way to tell now. It was too lateÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (335). He realizes that he lived his entire life under the shadow of fear of the electric chair. Once he realizes that he is actually doomed for the chair, he assumes that he should live his live with complete freedom with the remaining days he has left. He concludes, however, that it is too late to live with freedom since he wasted all of his previous days under the shadow. This shadow of oppression holds him back from living freely because he knows that his skin color limits his chances to succeed in life. Furthermore, Bigger can make choices that will only dig him deeper into a hole he cannot escape from. After lashing out and committing a murder, Bigger expresses his feelings that he has a sense of power for the first time in his life. By committing this murder, he has broken away from the limitations being placed on him. Although it was negative, he could not be stopped because he was not assumed to be capable of such a crime. This demonstrates that the oppressed are subject to hostility and more likely to lash out due to the poor treatment and lack of individual freedoms. By using irony and symbolism, Richard Wright brings light to the issue of race and oppression in America. He attempts to convey that blacks and whiteÃ should be given equal opportunity to succeed. Wright believes that African Americans are placed into a mold of failure, one that they cannot escape. The title Ã¢â¬Å"Native SonÃ¢â¬ suggests something about the treatment of the generation of young men we are raising in our country. All of our Ã¢â¬Å"Native SonsÃ¢â¬ , no matter what race, should be treated equally and be given ample opportunity to succeed.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
1. There was very little evidence and the United States acted prematurely. The evidence itself is confusing and somewhat misleading. As we look on the invasion many Americans were very enthusiastic about going to war with Iraq. However, weÃ¢â¬â¢re not trying to think about why we were not there or trying to justify other than speculate the following reasons. Did Iraq have weapons of mass destruction or was the United States to find about their military power? Possibly, the United States was trying to eliminate Saddam and his regime to promote democracy and peace. I think because of the 9/11 tragedy and maybe control of the oil resources gave the United States a reason to act like they did. 2. The approval rate of other countries is justified because no one likes a bully! And frankly the United States has been fitting this description all too well by showing countries that if you mess the United States your messing with the bull. President Bush proved this by making a 48 hour notice and invading Iraq exactly on the 48 hour mark. This shows other countries that the United States means business. If I could I would love to live in another country such as Australia. I believe that my view of American politics would drastically change! Maybe for the better because I would not be under the hammer so to speak. Indirectly, if American politics did not include the country I was living in. I would not take the time to care. 3. I have two opinions of this one Britain being an ally it should be there good pleasure to help in any way to fight the war in Iraq. Because the United States I feel would have done the same for Britain. That is just good relations between allied countries. If Britain did not help the United States they probably would not consider Britain to be a good ally to keep relations going like they have. My second opinion is that Britain should have not got involved with the United States against Iraq. For the simple fact, a big majority of Muslims lives there. Thereby making a terrorist attack more eminent. Britain should have negotiated a term to help the United States only in a real emergency.
Monday, November 11, 2019
ntroduction The relationship between sports and development can be analyzed from different angles Ã¢â¬â some of these have received quite a bit of attention in the literature, others less. An important share of the literature focuses on football (soccer), baseball, and basketball because these sports are played most widely and because of the large economic interests. It is important to first define Ã¢â¬Å"developmentÃ¢â¬ . Sports obviously affects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s physical development, and also his or her social and psychological development,1 all contributing to the wider Ã¢â¬Å"developmentÃ¢â¬ of society, a reason why the United Nations organized the International Year of Sport and Physical Education in 2005, and incorporates sports into its programs and policies (UN sport for development and peace, 2006). Another definition of sports development refers to the creation of a sports infrastructure and a sports competition in developing countries. The basic principle behind this perspective is the universal right of all people to play and sport. This paper takes a specific view by focusing on the relationship between sports and economic development, in particular income growth and poverty alleviation. We focus mainly on the causal effect from sports to development.2 In Europe and North America, sports are increasingly important to the economy. About 2 million people are employed in the sports economy in the 15 member countries of the European Union Ã¢â¬â that is, 1.3 per cent of overall EU employment. And the sports economy is growing. In Europe, in the early 1970s, the ratio of overall sport expenditures (for goods and services) to GDP was around 0.5 per cent. In 1990, the ratio ranged between 1 and 1.5 per cent of GDP in most European countries (Andreff and Szymanski, 2006). In the UK, the contribution of the sports economy to GDP is currentlyÃ estimated at more than 2%. As a comparison: this is three times as high as the current contribution of agriculture to GDP in the UK. Sports teams have become large commercial Ã¢â¬â and often multinational Ã¢â¬â enterprises. For example, the value of Manchester United is estimated at 1.4 billion dollars, which equals approximately the total annual output (GDP) of a country like Sierra Leone. The richest US baseball team, the New York Yankees, is valued at more than 1 billion dollars; and the average US football team is worth more than 0.5 billion dollars. However, comparable and representative data on the economic value of sports are not available, especially for developing countries. In this paper we focus therefore on two specific issues which seem particularly relevant for the impact of football on economic development in the context of the South African World Cup. The first is the impact of sports/infrastructure investments on development; the second is about migration of sports players and development. The Impact of Infrastructure Investments Bids placed by candidate cities or countries to host a mega-sports event, such as the World Cup, have tremendously increased over time. This increase in bids is caused by the law of supply and demand. The supply of mega-sports events remains constant while the number of candidate organizing countries and cities increases. One reason for this is that emerging and developing countries are increasingly competing with rich countries for hosting such events. An important argument that candidate governments put forward for hosting a mega-sports event is the perceived economic benefits that the event creates (Porter, 1999). They typically claim that events, such as the World Cup, give a stimulus to business resulting in economic benefits which are larger than the costs, including public funding, from organizing the event (Noll and Zimbalist, 1997). Governments or sports entrepreneurs often hire consulting agencies to draft an economic impact report (Johnson and Sack, 1996). Irrespective of the mega-sports event, such reports from consulting companies always claim a huge positive economic impact. However, there is a lot of critique in the academic literature on the validity of these economic impact studies. Matheson (2002; 2006) points out that many (event-sponsored) studies exaggerate the economic impact on localÃ communities and Porter (1999) states that the predicted benefits of public spending never materialize. One problem with many of these impact studies by consultants is that they use input-output analyses, which have been heavily criticized in the academic literature. Such input-output analyses start from the assumption of no capacity constraints, implying infinitely elastic supply curves. As a consequence, there is no crowding out and an increase in demand will always result in positive indirect effects only. As pointed out by Matheson (2006), exactly this omitted crowding out effect (next to the substitution effect and leakages) is a primary reason why ex ante studies overestimate the economic impact of mega-events. Moreover, the multipliers used by these input-output analyses are doubtful and inaccurate because they are based on the normal production patterns in an economic area. However, the economy may behave very differently when hosting a mega-event, rendering the Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ multipliers invalid (Matheson, 2006). Another problem is that these studies are always prospective (Coates and Humphreys 2003). Prospective studies need to be compared with retrospective econometric studies to see, in hindsight, whether they were correct. However, retrospective studies are often not executed because governments or bidding organizations have no incentives to order such a study (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2004). If conducted, most ex-post studies state that the evidence that mega-sports events generate economic benefits is weak, at best. Thus, these few ex post analyses generally confirm that ex-ante studies exaggerate the benefit of mega-sports events.6 Siegfried and Zimbalist (2000) review several econometric studies and all these studies find no statistically significant evidence that building sports facilities stimulates economic development. Baade and Dye (1990) find evidence that the presence of a new or renovated stadium has an uncertain impact on the level of personal income and even possibly a negative impact on local development relative to the region. Another frequently made comment is that, even if hosting a mega-event creates benefits for the organizing region, the question should be posed whether financing su ch an event is the most efficient use of public money. Kesenne (1999) argues that for example the World Cup should only receive public funding if there are no alternative projects that yield higher benefits. However, as Kesenne (1999) admits, it is impossible to assess all alternatives, although it remains important toÃ calculate opportunity costs. A study which is highly relevant for the present paper is that of Brenke and Wagner (2006) who analyze the economic effects of the World Cup 2006 in Germany. The authors find that expectations that the World Cup would significantly increase spending on employment and growth were overestimated. Additional employment was generated only temporarily. The infrastructure and promotion costs in hosting the World Cup boosted overall economic performance by approximately 0.05% (estimates vary between 0.02 percent and 0.07 percent). The main beneficiaries of the World Cup were FIFA (187 million Euros) and the German Football Association DFB (21 million Euros). Economic Impact Assessments of the World Cup 2010 in South Africa In July 2003, Grant Thornton Kessel Feinstein issued the results of their economic impact assessment, ordered by the South African company that submitted the bid to host the football World Cup to FIFA in September 2003. In their report (Grant Thornton, 2003) they predict that the event will lead to direct expenditure of R12.7 billion; an increase of R21.3 billion (1.2%) in the gross domestic product (GDP) of South Africa; 159,000 new employment opportunities (3.5% of South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s unemployed active population); and R7.2 billion additional tax revenue for the South African government. More recently, Grant Thornton estimated that the event will contribute at least R51.1 billion (2.7%) to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP because more tickets will be available for sale (Gadebe, 2007). These results have been widely disseminated through the media. In the light of the foregoing literature review, there is reason to be sceptical about these predictions. A closer look into the numbers and the methods provides serious reasons to believe that these results are overestimations. First, Grant Thornton (2003) includes domestic residentsÃ¢â¬â¢ expenditures at the event as direct benefits. However, this is merely a reallocation of expenditure and does not add to the GDP of a country (see e.g. Baade, 2006; Johnson and Sack, 1996). Second, according to Bohlmann (2006), the use of multipliers in the report is questionable and overly optimistic. Third, the report estimated that R1.8 billion would have to be spent on upgrades to stadia, and R500 million on infrastructure upgrades. However, a site published for the International Marketing Council of South Africa (2008) reports much higher investment costs: R8.4 billion for building and renovating ten World Cup stadiums (five have to be renovated and five have to be built). For example, the Durban stadium and the Cape Town stadium that have to be built cost respectively R2.6 billion and R2.85 billion. The cost of upgrades on the infrastructure, for example, upgrades of airports and improvements of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s road and rail network, is estimated now at R9 billion. Fourth, there are problems with the interpretation of the announced 159,000 new employment opportunities. The Local Organising Committee (LOC) plans to recruit volunteers, ordinary people as well as specialists, to work at the World Cup. These volunteers are not paid, which sheds a different light on the interpretation of Ã¢â¬Å"employment opportunitiesÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, many of the jobs will only be temporarily. Because of the troublesome economic situation in Zimbabwe, and because of the announcements of the numerous job vacancies, there is a huge migration flow of skilled and semi-skilled construction workers from Zimbabwe to South Africa (Sapa Ã¢â¬â AFP, 2007). These migrants may take up a considerable share of this employment. Do Impacts Differ with the Level of Development of the Host Country ? The most obvious point of reference when assessing the likely impact of the South Africa World Cup is to compare it with the most recent World Cup in Germany. However, important differences in the level of income and development between Germany and South Africa complicate such comparison. Thus we cannot merely transpose the economic impact of the World Cup in Germany to South-Africa (Matheson and Baade 2004). An important difference relates to the costs of infrastructure investments.7 First, investment requirements in South Africa are larger. While South Africa has to build several new stadiums, Germany had (most of) them already, and investments were limited to upgrading. Possible even more importantly, the general infrastructure, for example related to transport, requires much more investment in South Africa. Second, regarding the costs, one should look at differences in cost of capital and cost of labor. The aforementioned (opportunity) costs of capital are typically higher in developing countries. Money spent on the event is money not spent in other areas, such as theÃ health system. However, wages are comparatively low in developing countries which can lower the operating and infrastructure costs. Labor opportunity costs may also be low in developing countries with large unemployment. The post-World Cup use (return) of the investments differs as well. Concerning the stadia, these are well used in Germany with a large attendance in the Bundesliga. It is more uncertain what the demand for the football stadia will be in South Africa after the World Cup. In general, one would expect that the demand for these facilities is lower in developing countries, as sport is a luxury good, albeit that South Africa is a very specific country. There appears strong (and high income) demand for other sports (rugby) while less (and low income) demand for football. The extent of use of the stadia for these different demands will certainly affect the benefits. Low use and high maintenance costs may even lead to a negative Ã¢â¬ËlegacyÃ¢â¬â¢ of the World Cup. Evidence from the post-World Cup 2002 effects in South Korea and Japan indicates that concerns about the low use and high maintenance costs of the stadiums were justified (Watts, 2002). Regarding general infrastructure investments, one would assume that the potential effects would be large in South Africa. Its infrastructural deficiencies are often cited as a constraint on growth, and improving this because of the World Cup requirements could provide a major reduction in costs and provide a productivity boost to the economy. Sports Migration Possibly more than in any other economic activity, migration is important in sports. The share of migrants in the main sports leagues in Europe and North America is large by average economic sector standards, in particular for the top leagues. There are cases where teams in first divisions in Europe have played with 100% migrants, hence without a single native player. The pattern of migration varies considerably across sports. For example, in (ice) hockey, the main migration pattern is from Eastern Europe to the US and Canada; in baseball from Central America to the US and Canada; in basketball, some European and Latin American players play in the US NBA; at the same time, many US players who cannot make it in the NBA play in European leagues; and in football (soccer) the main migration is from the rest of the world to Europe, and among countries within Europe. Migration ofÃ African football players to Europe has grown exponentially over the past decades. Studies on the impact of these migration patterns can be classified into different groups. Most of the literature on migration of athletes or sports players emphasizes and focuses on what are claimed to be negative implications. One negative implication could be referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"muscle drainÃ¢â¬ (analogous to the literature on the Ã¢â¬Å"brain drainÃ¢â¬ ): it refers to the negative effects on education and the competitiveness of the local sports system. Related negative effects are argued to be low wages for developing country players, the illegal nature of the migration and transfers, and the lack of transparency surrounding it (e.g. Andreff, 2004; Magee and Sugden, 2002), inducing some to refer to this as a Ã¢â¬Å"modern form of slaveryÃ¢â¬ . While there appears to be considerable ad hoc evidence on these effects (including on illegal activities and lack of transparency in international transfers),8 there is in general little representative evidence on these issues. In contrast, an extensive literature on the development and poverty impacts of general migration, which is generally based on much better data and evidence, suggests very different effects of migration. First, international remittances have in general a positive impact on development (Adams, 2006). Remittances reduce the level, depth and severity of poverty in the developing world, because a large proportion of these income transfers go to poor households, although not necessarily the very poorest (Adams and Page, 2003, 2005). Remittances also have a positive impact on investment in education and in entrepreneurial activities and can help raise the level of human capital in a country as a whole (Edwards and Ureta, 2003; Yang, 2005; McCormick and Wahba, 2001; Page, Cuecuecha and Adams, 2008). While very little is known about the impact of remittances from sports remuneration, there is no ex ante reason to believe that these effects would be very different. Second, migration affects the level of human capital (in a broad interpretation) in the origin country in both positive and negative ways, what is sometimes referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"brain drainÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"brain gainÃ¢â¬ (Ozden and Schiff, 2005). Recent studies (not focusing on migration in sports) come to the conclusion that, although international migration involves the movement of the educated, international migration does not tendÃ to take a very high proportion of the best educated, aside from a few labor-exporting countries. Hence the brain drain is generally limited (Adams, 2003). In fact, migration of the educated from a developing country may increase the incentive to acquire education, resulting in a brain gain. In other words, the dynamic investment effects reverse the static, depletion effects of migration on schooling (Boucher et al, 2005). Hence, in summary, taking into account dynamic incentive effects, the net impact seems to be a Ã¢â¬Å"brain gainÃ¢â ¬ . These findings seem to conflict with arguments that the Ã¢â¬Ëmuscle drainÃ¢â¬â¢ in sports undermines the sporting capacity of developing countries. It is said to divert the most talented sportsmen, leaving the developing countries with the costs of their education without the possibility of regaining this investment in human (or athletic) capital. This muscle drain is also argued to erode the capacity of the home country to use its most talented athletes in international competition, explaining the Ã¢â¬Å"poor performances of developing countries in world sport eventsÃ¢â¬ (Andreff, 2004). However, the empirical evidence to support these arguments does not appear to stand up to a rigorous analysis, such as taking into account selection bias. Moreover, the analyses ignore any dynamic effects which seem to occur in developing country sports sectors where investments in local training facilities have grown with the increased success of developing country players in rich country sports leagues, although there is no systematic evidence on this. Moreover, developing countries seem to have done better, not worse, since the start of substantial migration from their players to rich country competitions. For example, African teams have performed increasingly well in the past three decades in the World Cup. Third, the creation of sports schools with the explicit objective to prepare local players for playing in rich country sports leagues is the subject of much debate. While some of these schools are quite successful, the models are criticized for an unequal distribution of the gains (with the, often European, owners argued to capture a disproportionate share of the financial benefits), and for leading to a decline in education enrolment, and for creating social problems (Darby, Akindes and Kirwin, 2007). Fourth, the search for African players by European football clubs is argued to be an example of wage dumping (Poli, 2006). These arguments are very similar to the issues in the general migration literature with migrants taking over jobs at lower wages in the host country Ã¢â¬â an issue well studied in other sectors of the economy. Interestingly, one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading experts, George Borjas of Harvard University claims that there is no clear evidence either way; and that despite massive immigration from poorer countries in recent decades studies show very little impact on wages in the US (Aydemir and Borjas, 2007). Finally, while across the globe remittances are a very important source of capital, and particularly so in some developing countries, it is unclear whether remittances of migrated sports players are sufficiently bulky to have a significant impact on the development of a country or a region. On the one hand, the number of players migrating is very small compared to total employment. However, sports migration has grown rapidly and incomes are generally much higher in Europe or the US than at home, where incomes are considerably lower. However, there is no substantive evidence here; one can only speculate or draw on ad hoc cases. Impact of the World Cup Given these potential effects of migration, how is the World Cup likely to affect these? Several changes may occur, some with opposing effects. If the World Cup gives a long-term boost to football in South Africa, either by creating facilities in areas of the countries or for parts of the population where football is popular, or by drawing in new parts of the population (and their incomes) into football, this may increase the demand for players from other African countries; and thus in-migration of players. Another possible effect is that the World Cup may inspire young South Africans to become international players or may induce much needed investments in youth football and training facilities in South Africa. This could lead to a surge in football academies in South Africa. This is what was observed in Senegal after the exceptional performance of the national team in the 2002 World Cup. This could then result in an increase in out-migration of footballÃ players from South Africa to the rest of the world. Concluding comments: Money is not everything. This paper has reviewed several potential economic effects of the World Cup. The arguments discussed so far seem to suggest that the economic impact of the World Cup in South Africa is likely to be less than argued by the consulting reports, but that there may be substantive benefits from improvements in the general infrastructure that result from the World Cup organization. However, money, of course, is not everything. There is a growing economic literature on the connection between happiness (or subjective well-being) and income. Within a society, studies find that, on average, persons with a higher income are happier than poor people (see e.g. Frey and Stutzer, 2002; Graham and Pettinatio, 2002) but that after a certain threshold level of income, higher income does not seem to make people happier. Several reports also point out that benefits are not always tangible or cannot be expressed in financial terms, such as the increased confidence and pride of the population of the host country. Szymanski (2002) argues that organizing the World Cup will not boost economic growth although the government expenditures do improve the overall well being of its citizens because of these intangible effects. The study of Brenke and Wagner (2006) on the economic effects of the World Cup 2006 in Germany comes to a similar conclusion, i.e. that the economic effects were minor but that there was a positive effect on society for other reasons. The World Cup showed a positive image of the country and, as they say: Ã¢â¬Å"it was great fun, nothing more, nothing less.Ã¢â¬ One could even hypothesize on the economic implications of this. There is evidence from the psychology literature that happier people perform better in general and also earn more income. Graham et al. (2004) find that factors such as self-esteem and optimism that affect happiness also have positive effects on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the labor market. This effect of happiness could be particularly relevant for the World Cup in South Africa, because the study of Graham et al (2004) also shows that these factors matter more for the poor. In this view, the extent to which the World Cup stimulates a positive attitude among poor people in South African societyÃ matters especially. Hence, ensuring poor local people access to the games is important. In this light the initiative of the FIFA and the local organizers to make tickets more easily and cheaper available for local residents is a step in the right direction. References Adams, R.H.J. & J. Page (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"International Migration, Remittances and Poverty in Developing CountriesÃ¢â¬ World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3179. Adams, R.H.J. & J. Page (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Do International Migration and Remittances Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?Ã¢â¬ World Development, Vol. 33, Nr. 10. pp. 1645 Ã¢â¬â 1669. Adams, R.H.J. (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain. A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting CountriesÃ¢â¬ Policy Research Working Paper 3069. The World Bank. Poverty Reduction Group, Washington, DC. Adams, R.H.J. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Migration, Remittances and Development: The Critical Nexus in the Middle East and North AfricaÃ¢â¬ United Nations expert group meeting on international migration and development in the Arab region. Andreff, W. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"The Taxation Of Player Moves From Developing CountriesÃ¢â¬ In: Rodney, F. & Fizel, J. (eds.) International Sports Economics Comparisons, Westport & London, Praeger 2004. pp. 87 Ã¢â¬â 103. Aydemir, A. & G. Borjas (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Cross-Country Variation in the Impact of International Migration: Canada, Mexico, and the United StatesÃ¢â¬ Journal of the European Economic Association Vol. 5, Nr. 4 pp. 663 Ã¢â¬â 708. Baade, R.A. (1996). Ã¢â¬Å"Professional Sports as Catalysts for Metropolitan Economic DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ Journal of Urban Affairs Vol. 18, Nr. 1 pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 17. Baade, R.A. & Dye, R. (1990). Ã¢â¬Å"The Impact of Stadiums and Professional Sports on Metropolitan Area DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ Growth and Change, Vol. 21, Nr. 2. pp. 1 Ã¢â¬â 14. Banerjee, A. and J. Swinnen (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Does a Sudden Death Liven up the Game ? Rules, Incentives and Strategy in FootballÃ¢â¬ Economic Theory, 23:411-421 Banerjee, A., Swinnen, J. and A. Weersink (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Skating on Thin Ice: Rule Changes and Team Strategies in the NHLÃ¢â¬ Canadian Journal of Economics, 40(2):493-514 Bernard, A.B. & M.R. Busse (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Who Wins th e Olympic Games: Economic Resources and Medal TotalsÃ¢â¬ The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 86, Nr. 1. pp. 413 Ã¢â¬â 417. Bohlmann, H.R. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Predicting the Economic Impact of the 2010 FIFA World Cup on South AfricaÃ¢â¬ Working paper, University of Pretoria. Boucher, S., Stark, O. & J.E. Taylor (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"A Gain with a Drain? Evidence from Rural Mexico on the New Economics of the Brain DrainÃ¢â¬ Discussion Papers on Development Policy 99, ZEF, Bonn, October 2005. Brenke, K. & G.G. Wagner (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"The Soccer World Cup in Germany: A Major Sporting and Cultural Event Ã¢â¬â But Without Notable Business Cycle EffectsÃ¢â¬ DIW Berlin Weekly Report. Vol. 2, Nr. 3 pp. 23 Ã¢â¬â 31. Coates, D & B.R. Humphreys (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ Public Finance and Management. Vol. 3, Nr. 3 pp. 335 Ã¢â¬â 357. Colin, F. (2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Voetbal is de levensader van de townshipsÃ¢â¬ . Article in De Standaard, 2 January 2008. Crompton, J.L. (1995). Ã¢â¬Å"Economic Impact Analysis of Sports Facilities and Events: Eleven sources of MisapplicationÃ¢â¬ Journal of Sports Management. Vol. 9, pp. 14 Ã¢â¬â 35. Darby, P., G. Akindes & M. Kirwin (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Football Academies and the Migration of African Fo otball Labor to EuropeÃ¢â¬ Journal of Sport and Social Issues. Vol. 31, Nr. 2 pp. 143 Ã¢â¬â 161. Di Tella, R., R.J MacCulloch & A.J. Oswald (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"The Macroeconomics of HappinessÃ¢â¬ The Review of Economics and Statistics. Vol. 85, Nr. 4 pp. 809 Ã¢â¬â 827. Easterlin, R.A. (1974). Ã¢â¬Å"Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical EvidenceÃ¢â¬ . In: David, P.A. & M.W. Reder. Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honour of Moses Abramowitz. New York and London: Academic Press. Economic Research Associates (1984). Community Economic Impact of the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles and Southern California. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee. Edwards, A. & M. Ureta (2003). International Migration, Remittances and Schooling: Evidence from El SalvadorÃ¢â¬ Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 72, Nr. 2. pp. 429 Ã¢â¬â 461. Frey, B. & A. Stutzer (2002). Happiness and Economics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Gadebe, T. (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Fan Parks Important in Drawing CrowdsÃ¢â¬ . Article on Buanews, available online at www.buanews.gov.za, 28 June 2007. Graham, C. & S. Pettinatio (2002). Happiness and Hardship: Opportunity and Insecurity in New Market Economies. The Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC. Graham, C., A. Eggers & S. Sukhtankar (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Does Happiness Pay? An Exploration Base don Panel Data from RussiaÃ¢â¬ Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization. Vol. 55, pp. 319 Ã¢â¬â 342. Grant Thornton (2003). SA 2010 Soccer World Cup Bid Executive Summary. Available online at www.polity.org.za. Humphreys, J.M. & M.K. Plummer (1992). The Economic Impact on the State of Georgia of Hosting the 1996 Olympic Games. Atlanta: Commission for the Olympic Games Inc. International Marketing Council of South Africa (2008). Available online at www.southafrica.info. Jiang, M. & L.C. Xu (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Medals in transition: explaining medal performance and inequality of Chinese provincesÃ¢â¬ Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 33. pp. 158 Ã¢â¬â 172. Johnson, A.T. & A. Sack (1996). Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing the value of sports facilities: The importance of no-economic factorsÃ¢â¬ Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 10, Nr. 4 pp. 369 Ã¢â¬â 381. Kesenne, S. (1999). Ã¢â¬Å"Miscalculations and Misinterpretations in Economic Impact AnalysisÃ¢â¬ In: Jeanrenaud, C. (Ed.) The Economic Impact of Sports Events. Centre International dÃ¢â¬â¢Etude du Sport: Switzerland. KPMG Peat Marwick (1993). Sydney Olympics 2000: Economic Impact Study (Volumes 1 and 2). Sydney: Sydney Olympics 2000 Bid Ltd. Lee, S. (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"A Review of Economic Impact Study on Sport EventsÃ¢â¬ The Sport Journal, Vol. 4, Nr. 2. Madden, J .R. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Economic and Fiscal Impacts of Mega Sporting Events: A General Equilibrium AssessmentÃ¢â¬ Public Finance and Management. Vol. 6, Nr. 3 pp. 346 Ã¢â¬â 394. Magee, J. & J. Sugden (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"The World at Their Feet: Professional Football and International Labor MigrationÃ¢â¬ Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 26, No. 4. pp. 421 Ã¢â¬â 437. Matheson, V.A. (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Upon Further Review: An Examination of Sporting Event Economic Impact StudiesÃ¢â¬ The Sport Journal, Vol. 5, Nr. 1. Matheson, V.A. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Mega-Events: The Effect of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest Sporting Events on Local, Regional, and National EconomiesÃ¢â¬ Working Paper. Nr. 06-10. Worcester, MA: College of the Holy Cross: Department of Economics. Matheson, V.A. & R.A. Baade (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Mega-sporting Events in Developing Nations: Playing the Way to Prosperity?Ã¢â¬ Working Paper. Nr. 04-04. Worcester, MA: College of the Holy Cross: Department of Economics. McCormick , B. & J. Wahba (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Overseas Work Experience, Savings and Entrepreneurship amongst Return Migrants of LDCs.Ã¢â¬ Scottish Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 48, pp. 164 Ã¢â¬â 178. Noll, R.G. & A. Zimbalist (1997). Ã¢â¬Å"Build the Stadium Ã¢â¬â Create the JobsÃ¢â¬ In: Noll, R.G. & A. Zimbalist (Eds.) Sports, Jobs and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Ozden, C. & M. Schiff (eds.) (2005). International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain, World Bank and Palgrave MacMillan, New York. Page, J., Cuecuecha, A. & R.H.J. Adams (2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Remittances, Consumption and Investment in GhanaÃ¢â¬ World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4515. Poli, R. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"AfricansÃ¢â¬â¢ Status in the European Football PlayersÃ¢â¬â¢ Labour MarketÃ¢â¬ Soccer and Society Vol. 7, Nos. 2-3. pp. 278-291. Porter, P.K. (1999). Mega-Sports Events as Municipal Investments: A Critique of Impact Analysis. In: Fizel, J., E. Gustafson & L. Hadley (Eds.) Sports Economics: Current Research. Westport, CT: Praeger. PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2004). European Economic Outlook, June 2004. Sapa Ã¢â¬â AFP 2007 (2007).Ã¢â¬ Zim Counts Losses as Cup Draws WorkersÃ¢â¬ . Article in Mail and Guardian, 3 June 2007. Siegfried, J. & A. Zimbalist (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"The Economics of Sport Teams and Their CommunitiesÃ¢â¬ Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol. 14, Nr. 3 pp. 95 Ã¢â¬â 114. Szymanski, S. (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"The Economic Impact of the World CupÃ¢â¬ World Economics. Vol. 3, Nr. 1 pp. 169 Ã¢â¬â 177. Yang, D. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"International Migration, Human Capital and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Philippine MigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ Exchange Rate Shocks.Ã¢â¬ World Bank Policy Researc h Working Paper 3578. Vanden Auweele, Y., Malcolm, C. & B. Meulders (eds.) (2006). Sport and Development, LannooCampus. Watts, J. (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Japanese Stadiums Turn into White ElephantsÃ¢â¬ . Article in The Guardian, 2 July 2002. UN sport for development and peace (2006) Ã¢â¬Å"Sport for Development and Peace: the Way ForwardÃ¢â¬ Report of the Secretary-General, 22nd September.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å" We recognize Lyceum of the Philippines University Batangas- educational institution that has proven the old adage,Ã¢â¬ The more you know, the more you donÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬ - that success only opens our eyes to the many things that we can do better. And without doubt, it has continued to better itselfÃ¢â¬ , Pres. Benigno S. Aquino III said in his speech, during the 15th Philippine Quality Awards, MalacaÃ Ëan Palace, Dec 12. LPU is awarded with recognition for commitment to quality management along with other three companies, Don Bosco Technical College, Optev, Inc., Thomson Reuters Corporation Pte. Ltd. Philippine Branch. Ã¢â¬Å" This is the time when we are reminded just how important it is to improve our capacities. Whether thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an emergency or not, it is always vital to recognize those who have not wavered on the path to self improvement, and that is precisely why we are here today. Given the week weÃ¢â¬â¢ve just had, this event is a welcome step back- awarding companies in our country who have performed exceptionally wellÃ¢â¬ , Aquino cited. Patterned after Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award, PQA (Philippine Quality Award) was institutionalized through Republic Act 9013, 2001. PQA grants recognition to public and private organizations and other stakeholders who strive to attain performance excellence. Ã¢â¬Å"Companies like you have done a lot for our people. You have invested in them; you have given them the platform on which they can impress the whole world with their talentsÃ¢â¬ , he further quoted. President Aquino emphasized in his speech that Ã¢â¬Å" Made in the PhilippinesÃ¢â¬ are not inferior and urged that more Filipino companies should join in the battle against that backwards attitude that used to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Pwede naÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"I am certain that we will get to the point where our products and services, and most importantly, our people will truly shine in the world stage continuously.Ã¢â¬ , President Aquino concluded. Mr. Peter p. Laurel, LPU-B President received the PQA trophy. Also present in the conferment ceremonies were Dr. Flora V. Javier ( Consultant for Special Projects and Planning/ Dean, Institute of Advanced Studies), Dr. Fe R. Medina ( VP for Institutional Affairs), Dr. Dexter R. Buted ( VP for LIMA Campus) and academic and non-academic heads.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Aphrodite - Goddess of Love and Beauty The Greek goddess Aphrodite may have been an import from the Near East where Sumerian and Babylonian goddesses played a part in love, fertility, and war. For the Greeks, Aphrodite was goddess of love and beauty. Although Aphrodite bore children to the messenger and war gods, is considered married to the blacksmith god, and was otherwise engaged in activities suitable to the immortals, she also played an active role in the lives of man. She could be helpful or hurtful with gifts of love and lust, depending. Who Is Aphrodite?: Aphrodite Profile gives you the basics of Aphrodite goddess of love and beauty, including her family and major myths associated with her. Aphrodite Meddles: Aphrodite Meddles in Mortal Affairs identifies the metamorphoses, deaths and marriages caused by Aphrodites interference in mortal affairs. Cupid and Psyche Here is my re-telling of the love story of Cupid and Psyche, the charming romantic story in which the goddess Venus (Aphrodite) plays a villainous role to try to keep her son from the mortal women he loves.Ã Also see the Bulfinch version of Cupid and Psyche. Bulfinch retells Venus Profile: To the Romans, Aphrodite was Venus, but there were other aspects of the Roman goddess of love. Read about the fertility aspect and rituals associated with Venus. Venus Basics Venus is the Roman goddess of spring whose worship overlapped the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Read the basics on Venus. The Modest Venus There was more to Venus than love and beauty. She was also one of the goddesses in charge of modesty. Love Goddesses: In Love Goddesses, read about the top ancient love goddesses. Beauty (or attraction), promiscuity, fecundity, magic, and an association with death are some of the attributes associated with love goddesses. Surprisingly, warfare was also an attribute of some love goddesses. Adonis: Read the love story of Adonis and Aphrodite, which ends with the death of Adonis, as told in The Metamorphoses of Ovid. Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite: The generally short hymns (called Homeric Hymns, although they were not written by the epic poet Homer) to the ancient gods and goddesses reveal much of what the ancient Greeks thought about them. Read an English translation of one of them, Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite V that reveals which gods were impervious to her charms. Online Resources on Aphrodite Goddess: AphroditeCarlos Parada lists the many mates of Aphrodite and her interventions in human affairs, as well as three versions of her birth, and her offspring. AphroditeAphrodites birth, parents, spouse, and an image.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
10 Companies Where Part-Time Jobs Can Mean Full-Time Benefits Need to work part time, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to have to work all the jobs in order to scrape together health insurance and other necessary benefits? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not a great time to be in your position, given that a lot of companies are making their benefits threshold 30+ hours per week- often 40+ for retirement benefits, but there are still a lot of great companies that offer competitive benefits to folks working fewer than 30 hours per week. Here are some of the best.1. Whole FoodsIf you log 20 hours per week, youÃ¢â¬â¢re eligible for their full medical, dental, and vision coverage, once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve hit 400 hours total. These arenÃ¢â¬â¢t fixed or guaranteed- and management has the right to rescind, but they are out there. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also be eligible for a 20% purchase discount in-store, as well as subsidized life insurance, paid sick and vacation time, stock options, and a 401(k). They also give bonuses to rank-and-file employees out of the unused leftovers of their annual labor budget.2. StarbucksAt Starbucks, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not an employee, youÃ¢â¬â¢re a Ã¢â¬Å"partner.Ã¢â¬ And if you average 20 hours per week, youÃ¢â¬â¢re eligible for competitive base pay plus health care. You might even get equity in the form of Ã¢â¬Å"Bean Stock.Ã¢â¬ YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll also get PTO, a 401(k), and a 30% store discount. And their health benefits are pretty sweet, covering 100% of preventative care and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s preventative health, as well as 70% of premium costs.3. Allegis GroupThe company formerly known as Aerotek employs nearly 10 times as many contractors and temp workers as it does full-timers. At 20+ hours per week, youÃ¢â¬â¢re immediately eligible for medical, dental, and vision, plus a matching 401(k) program, possible profit-sharing bonuses, disability insurance, a 529 college savings plan, and PTO.4. LandsÃ¢â¬â¢ EndDepending on your job, and your department, you might be eligible for dental, vision, and life insurance, plus access to the on- site medical clinic, fitness center, and day care. And, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a seasonal employee willing to commit to the following year, your benefits might be extended.5. CostcoWork more than 24 hours per week, for a total of at least 180, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be eligible for their Choice Plus health plan, plus low-cost dental, a cheap in-house prescription plan, a 401(k), and an FSA, stock purchase options, disability, life, and long-term care insurance. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s also the Care Network, providing free mental health counseling, and referrals to debt counselors and lawyers.6. LowesLowes offers part-time employees a limited medical plan, plus basic dental and vision- with no minimum hourly threshold. You pay full blast the first year, then Lowes subsidizes your coverage the next. There are also stock purchase options, a 401(k), and PTO available after 180 days.7. Trader JoesWork 30+ hours a week and get health coverage. Plus free basic dental and vision (at only 15+ hours per week!).8 . U-HaulPart time U-Haul employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t receive paid holidays or sick leave, or educational assistance, BUT part time workers do have access to limited medical, dental, 401(k), and stock ownership plans. Plus travel discounts through U-Haul and other companies.9. REIYou canÃ¢â¬â¢t do much better than REI. Average 20 hours per week, and the company will give you medical benefits, plus they pay the full cost of disability and life coverage. And thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a sweet employee incentive plan available to all employees.10. UPSYou might need to wait a year for your full benefits to kick in, but you can get medical, dental, tuition assistance, adoption assistance, and smoking cessation support. The tuition assistance is immediately available to all new hires.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
MHE503 Survey of Emergency and Disaster Mgt Module 2 Case - Essay Example FBI: months before the actual attack, there had been a reported suspicion on two Middle Eastern Men training in one of the US flight schools. It has been observed that they're being too much concern about fast learning procedures had been a practical reason for the suspicion of the agency.2 Then again, this call has not been well recognized by the government as a possible threat to the nation's security. These particular calls for possible alarm appeared to have no specific and strong evidences of being true, taking them into consideration could have been a better choice for the government as putting the little suspicions together was practically a good reason for them to search through the individuals were suspected to have connections with Al Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden. The reports after the attack noted that there were possible calls and secret movements within the government agencies during the pre-attack dates. ... One particular truth that might have enveloped the lack of concentration and attention that the government had on the possible case of an arising attack against the safety of US may have not been given careful concern practically because of the compartmentalization of the major agencies governing the safety of the country.4 Likely, even though the government administration of US poses to be centralized and mainly controlled by a main unit, it could be noted that only a few are really interconnected towards each other. Here are some other considerations that could have been given attention to: Many agents in both CIA and FBI do not have an idea about each other. Hence, even though they are interconnected by a particular system, there is no personal linkage that served their agencies. Because of this, it is quite hard to deal with the increased emergence of possible suspected matters that are noted to have a great imposing threat to the nation's security and protection. 5Because of this, it could be noted that getting to the people who know something about the situation was not that easy to accomplish between the different teams within the agencies working within a certain case. Besides that, being naive over the major things that happened before the attack may be correlated to the self belief that Americans have that the Al Qaeda would not take the risk to attack the nation since they though these Middle Eastern individuals believe that the nation's security is established well and that they would be feared by it. No matter, the surprise attack made a good fulfilment of the plan. 6Apparently, the American government failed to recognize the fact that these Middle Eastern Individuals are known for their commitment to their