Sunday, January 26, 2020
Existence of God Debate Philosophy The argument on whether God is existent or non-existent is one that has lasted for decades. Some philosophers and theologians have argued on both sides but a solid evidence for or against the existence of God have not been provided. However, several proofs for or against Gods existence have been provided. The paper argues on the basis of the non-existence of God from a philosophical point of view. Theories such as the problem of evil, principle of nature, and the parsimony arguments demonstrate that God does not exist and religion is a just a mere belief created in human minds. Apparently, God is not omnipresent, omnibenevolent, omniscience, or omnipotent. Introduction The idea of God is almost global among societies of the human race, although it has different cultural definitions. The arguments in support of and those against Gods existence have been proposed by several scientists, philosophers, and theologians. In accordance with Murray and Rea (2008) philosophically, the arguments for and against Gods existence involve chiefly the ontology (nature of being) and epistemological (theory of knowledge) sub-disciplines as well as the theory of value because perfection concepts are often connected with notions of God (157). However, the debate on Gods existence has raised quite a number of philosophical issues. The main problematic issue is the existence of both polytheistic and monotheistic perceptions. Some definitions of the existence of God are so non-specific while others are self-contradictory. It is possible to draw the conclusion that all definitions given on God by humans are probably false characterizations of what God accounts for the being of humans on earth and the universe (Everitt 159). Moreover, one can also conclude that the whole idea of any God has no basis since it is not backed by any evidence. Thirdly, it may be suggested that the intellect of humans is probably not sufficient to analyze concepts that are absolutely based on human understanding and beliefs, such as Gods existence as a creator. The key issue here is not whether God exists or not, but whether there is sufficient evidence to support his existence or non-existence (Murray and Rea 157). The religious beliefs of Gods existence are probably out of human emotional need for protection and belonging since there is no reliable evidence to support these arguments. God does not exist. Methodology Books by famous philosophers who have written on the non-existence of God will be used to gather sufficient information on the topic. The Bible will also be used to demonstrate the contradictory nature of God. Discussion According to Oppy and Scott (2010), God is unlimited goodness and therefore if God truly exists then there is no evil (82). However, considering that there is evil in the world, God doesnt exist. This reasoning makes a lot of sense because how could it be possible that God, an infinite goodness be created and as such protects a world full of corruption and imperfections. If God really existed then horrible and terrible things wouldnt occur in the world as they do today. For instance, there would be no starvation like there is in third world countries where thousands of grown ups and innocent children die of hunger every year. In addition, things like destructive wars which result to a lot of human anguish and suffering would not exist. In this context, the Holy Bible which is believed to be Gods absolute word condemns theft, murder, and adultery. In line with Khashaba (2006, it is quite difficult to believe that an all-knowing and powerful being that is infinitely-good created the entire world but is not capable of controlling the things that take place in it. Instead of just condemning them in an ancient book he could probably have abolished all forms of evil (119). Moreover, the same Bible says that God is a heavenly father. If that was the case, then he would have let his children to be good and free from like him hence wiping-out all evil from the face of the earth. According to Murray and Rea (2008), the non-existence of God may be proven by the principle of nature which is measurable, simple, and visible instead of believing in a complex being that can not be measured, perceived or conceived. As a matter of fact, scientific theories have provided explanations for natures existence and hence nature could be used to account for mankinds gradual development. This development has been explained by development of an organism that is single cell to one that is multi-cellular. On the other hand, evolution has explained the intelligence of the current man while the The Big Bang theory has explained the creation of planet earth (Murray and Rea 158). In contrast, those in support of the existence of God argue on the basis of the causation theory. The argument states that one thing causes another and thus there will be no effect if the first cause did not exist. However, the existence of this first cause can not be proven or even determined under any circumstances. For instance, The Big Bang theory existed and that is why it is possible to base earths creation on it. Nevertheless, something else that caused the existence of this theory must have existed initially. In line with Johnson (2006), Philosophical theology writers such as St. Anselm argue that if a person understands that a greater being exists though not able to explain its existence, then it exists in reality (50). Thus, if someone understands that God exists, then he must exist in reality. This argument is absolutely futile if there is no sufficient evidence to support it. The fact that someone understands the existence of God and entirely understands God does not imply that God actually exists. For instance, if one understands in their minds and entirely that ghosts exist, however this is not a guarantee that indeed ghosts exist. Its just like in movies where people entirely understand a character that they are supposed to represent and even practically portray that character. Definitely this does not make the movie character a reality (Oppy and Scott 102). Its often claimed that the biblical God is omnipresent (everywhere at all times, omnipotent (all-powerful), omnibenevolent (unlimitedly good), and omniscient (familiar with everything). From a logical point of view, these concepts are entirely impossible implying that God doesnt exist. The Bible says that nothing is impossible with God yet there are several instances in the same Bible where he was unable to do something. In relation to Murray and Rea (2008) The book of Judges 1:19ÃâÃ says that God was with Judah; he drove out the mountain inhabitants; but could not send away the valley inhabitants, because they had iron chariots (158).ÃâÃ If God was so compassionate then he would release people from the bondages of sin and destroy the devil who leads his people astray. At the same time, God would relieve humanity of the original sin penalty if he was omnipotent. Basically, if God was powerful and able yet he chooses to let human being suffer from sin, then its not logical to argue that he is omnibenevolent. In line with Everitt (2004), God should have erased the original sin and allowed men to be judged based on their own actions instead of paying for other peoples sins (154). On the same note, Christians say that God is omnipresent meaning that he is everywhere at the same time. If God was omnipresent then he would not have to walk like he says in the Bible that he shall walk with his people. There would be no need for him to relocate from one place to another in order to be with one of his since he already exist there. Similarly, God should never change his mind if at all he is omniscience because a change in mind demonstrates uncertainty. In relation to Oppy and Scott (2010) there are so many instances in the Bible where God changed his mind. For example, in the Exodus story where the children of Israel worshiped idols and God decided on destroying them, he later forgave them after Moses pleaded for forgiveness. This concept brings a lot of doubt on whether God really intended on destroying the Israelites or he was unable to do so yet he knew this would come to be (110). If God was in deed omnipresent and onmibenevolent he would prevent the occurrence of sin and destructive events. Conclusion/Recommendations There has been a significant attack on the conception of God as religion comes under a more intense scrutiny. Several theories and concepts have shown that God indeed doesnt exist. From an objective perception of the Bible, it is easy to see that God is not omnipresent, omniscience, omni benevolent, or omnipotent as claimed by the Bible. It is evident that the biblical God is contradictory and it is not possible that he exists. Moreover, there is no adequate evidence that the bible is not just an ordinary book. Principles such as The Big Bang can be used to explain the existence of nature hence can replace the belief that God exists. Theories of nature sufficiently explain the human beliefs in God and the development of religion. The issue of the existence of sin greatly challenges the existence of a God who is omnibenevolent and omnipotent. It is either that God exists and sin doesnt, or God doesnt exist but sin does. The existence of both is contradictory and it is not possible. Fu rther research and study may be necessary in understanding the existence or non-existence of God. Basically, there exists adequate evidence that there is no God though a concrete prove has not been discovered yet.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The Social Networking Effect on Teenagers The social networks are to people today what the TV was to people 20-30 something years ago. Human dependence on computers and the internet has come to the point that if the social networks ceased to work, relations and social connections would falter more so in teens than in adults. Teenagers have taken to social networking to do their everyday tasks and activities like interacting with friends and family, socializing and entertainment. While this sounds convenient, it really hinders a teenÃ¢â¬â¢s development.Teenagers may get hooked to these websites due to their many features and become social outcasts because they form a social life on these websites. As a result, one-on-one interaction with friends, family and even enemies are slowly phased out. To top all that off, social networking websites are haven for cyber bullies and stalkers and a playground for predators who are looking for their next target using fake profiles. Even after all these effects, critics still maintain that social networking websites are good for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth because it helps them gain computer skills and improve their literacy skills.The government needs to form a body to at least monitor the use of these social networks because these websites have the potential of leaving teenagers socially and physically inactive and expose them to other lurking dangers. People who support the use of social networking websites argue that these websites are actually beneficial for teenagers. These people assert that by spending so many hours on social networks, teenagers are gaining newer and better computer skills. That, they say, is helping them work their way towards getting a job a with a computer company.Even if working at a computer company is not what teens want, learning computer skills is still helpful because computers and internet are here to stay. Lauren Gerber, a journalist for PC1news. com wrote Ã¢â¬Å"The thing that parents donÃ¢â¬â ¢t know is that even simply going on Facebook is teaching your teenager how to use the internet to their advantageÃ¢â¬ (11). Gerber also wrote that teenagers, by socializing on various online sites, are learning how to get along with other people (11).Teenagers, by communicating with a wide variety of people, may be getting better at socializing with people of every race, religion and color. Marcia Clemmitt wrote a journal article called Ã¢â¬Å"Social Networking. Ã¢â¬ In this article she quoted Sonia Larsen, editor of website Global Voices, saying that with online social networking Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s more likely you will retain some degree of connection or friendship with a broader cross-sector of the population, leading to more harmonious human relations nationally and internationallyÃ¢â¬ (752).Another reason why people support the use of these websites by teenagers is that, by continuously having to read and being exposed to words, teenagers will develop good literacy ski lls. As teenagers get more comfortable with social networks they spend lesser and lesser time with the people around them, slowly detaching themselves from reality. Because teenagers are easily attracted to flashy objects, they get easily hooked to these websites for all the features they have to offer. Who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want something in which people can view other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s profiles without them ever finding out about it!This is exactly the reason why Facebook appeals to so many people; its privacy. Teenagers may take a moment to check whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on, and the moment turns into an hour and the hour to several hours. The cold hard truth is that teenagers are attracted to these websites like two magnets and this causes inactivity in teens. If they get addicted to these websites they will opt to stay on the computer hours at a time, phasing out any kind of physical activity what so ever. Teens will slowly detach themselves from the real life and live their life in the virtual world.In her article, Ã¢â¬Å"Wrapped Up In the Web: The Dangers of Teen Internet Addiction,Ã¢â¬ Sue Scheff, who is an author and parent advocate, wrote Ã¢â¬Å"The Internet has made it all too easy for teens to recoil from the pressures of adolescence and remain indoorsÃ¢â¬ ¦The lure of the web can often make it seem as though social networks and online gaming are acceptable substitutes for real lifeÃ¢â¬ (16). As a result of spending so very little time with actual people, teenagers lack decent social skills. Social networking websites have become a safe haven for cyber bullies and stalkers due to the privacy these sites offer.Cyber-bullying, which one of the fastest growing problems on the internet, is the use of the Internet, cell phones and other digital technology to harass, intimidate, threaten, mock and defame. Thomas Billitteri, in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Cyberbullying,Ã¢â¬ reports about a statistic from the Pew Research Center: Roughly a third of teens who use th e internet said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d received threatening messages, had e-mail or text messages forwarded without consent, had an embarrassing picture posted without consent, had rumors about them spread online, or experienced some other kind of online harassment. 387) Teenagers are very susceptible to this type of bullying as it inflicts deep and painful wounds on them, more mental than physical. Teenagers and children may intentionally or unintentionally bully their peers which may cause irreparable damage as teens are susceptible to being victimized throughout the day, week, month or year. In a study published by Sameer Hinduja and Justin Patchin of the Cyberbullying Reasearch Center, it showed that 20 percent of 10-18 year olds were cyberbullied in their lifetime and 7. percent were cyberbullied in the past 30 days (Hinduja and Patchin). Another growing problem on these websites is stalking. Teenagers may get obsessed with an interest of theirs and the simple online profile viewing may become a case of stalking, at first online then in real life. Cyber stalking has become a serious problem today as the privacy of social networking websites allows stalkers to view anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s photos and videos without that person ever finding out.It has serious psychological effects as it is more stressful and traumatizing due to its potential of being there 24/7, as Charlene Laino, a reporter for WebMD, quotes Elizabeth Carll, a psychologist, in her article Ã¢â¬Å"If you're harassed in school or at work, you can come home to a safe environmentÃ¢â¬ ¦If you're cyberstalked, it can be all the time, no matter where you areÃ¢â¬ . Sexual predators use social networking websites to look for unsuspecting children and teenagers to try and lure them into their traps. Predators use fake profiles to get in contact with children and teenagers and then try to tempt them into meeting them.Teenagers who are unaware may actually befriend these people and when called to meet they will go to them, unsuspecting of the trap they are walking into. Even though social networking websites have an age restriction of 13 or older joining the network, it is very easy for even a nine year old to join without so much as a hiccup. Because of this, social networking websites have become a playground for sexual predators. According to Predator Statistics, in the United States alone, Ã¢â¬Å"there are over 644,865 registered sex offendersÃ¢â¬ ¦and over 100,000 are lost in the systemÃ¢â¬ .This makes allowing teenagers access to social networking websites, or even the internet, a nightmare for parents. Today, every teenÃ¢â¬â¢s first impulse when left at home is to go online onto a social network and check what has been going on and in the midst if they are contacted by someone pretending to be their age they are bound to allow them access to their profiles. Even with all the bad things that could happen to teens using social networking websites people still support its use for them not considering the fact that these websites might render teenagers socially and physically inactive and expose them to other lurking dangers.No matter how much they try, parents are eventually going to end up with at least one if not all of these problems. For example, parents working full time might have to deal with a child who is so lost in the online social networking that he or she has no social life outside of it. Today, with the ever expanding technologies, people who wish to do harm will think of newer and worse ways to penetrate and destroy families which is why parents need to raise their voice over this sensitive issue. The biggest issue remains that there is still no form of entity or authority that can monitor, if not control, the use of these social websites.The government should form a body that not only monitors the use of these websites but also keeps out people who use it as a means to harm other people. These entities should also take measures so that children an d teenagers under a specified age are not allowed to access these websites what so ever. Work Cited Billitteri, Thomas J. Ã¢â¬Å"Cyberbullying. Ã¢â¬ CQ Researcher 2 May 2008: 385-408. Web. 21 Aug. 2011. Clemmitt, Marcia. Ã¢â¬Å"Social Networking. Ã¢â¬ CQ Researcher 17 Sept. 2010: 749-72. Web. 21 Aug. 2011. Gerber, Lauren. Ã¢â¬Å"New Discovery: Teenagers Are Actually Benefiting From Spending Too Much Time Online. Ã¢â¬ Are Social Networking Sites Harmful?Eds. Stefan Kiesbye. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven press, 2011. 10-12. Print. Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin Patchin. Cyberbullying Victimization. Rep. Cyberbullying Research Center, 2010. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. Laino, Charlene. Ã¢â¬Å"'Cyberstalking': Worse Than in-Person Harassment? Ã¢â¬ WebMD. WebMD Health News, 8 Aug. 2011. Web. 24 Aug. 2011 Ã¢â¬Å"Predator Statistics. Ã¢â¬ Internetsafety101. org. Enough Is Enough, n. d. Web. 24 Aug. 2011. Scheff, Sue. Ã¢â¬Å"Wrapped Up In the Web: The Dangers of Teen Internet Addiction. Ã¢ â¬ Are Social Networking Sites Harmful? Eds. Stefan Kiesbye. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Press, 2011. 13-18. Print.
Friday, January 10, 2020
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Wednesday, January 1, 2020
The controversy stoked with the suggestion by various opinion leaders in the country that Ã¢â¬Ëtorture warrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ are appropriate for application in the cases of war against terror. This provoked torrents of criticism, with the subject becoming practical rather than theoretical as was in the previous discussions. The administration denies the authorization of various techniques of torture categorically. The international and American law forbids various techniques from application in gathering information from suspected terrorists. Such techniques include waterboarding, hypothermia and deprivation of sleep to force confessions from suspects. The international conventions against torture in their laws forbid any form of torture and inhuman or degrading punishment and treatment against people. The International Convention against Torture (CAT) dictates that her signatories, including the United States should undertake prevention of inhuman treatment and torture, without provid ing any exceptional circumstances. However, despite these regulatory measures under the international conventions, the subject remains lively in various jurisdictions (McCoy, 2012). The subject of terrorism continues to inflict fear, pain and loss of lives in humanity, a factor that necessitates governments to incorporate all necessary measures to guard against terror. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethics and the War on Terrorism or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Thus, the debate on the ethical issue in a justifying use of torture in the war against terrorism continues. Both proponents and opponents of use of torture hold varied views on the issue. Arguments justifying torture in the war against terrorism The proponents of the use of torture in the war against terrorism to interrogate the terror suspects pose various supporting views that originate from philosophical, psychological, and ethical perspectives. To begin with, there is the normative reason to justify the use of torture interrogative techniques, which argues that in most scenarios, especially where the case is urgent, normal interrogative measures don not yield results. The terror cells often consist of extreme ideological roots, a factor that means it is nearly impossible for the suspect to betray their side. Thus, torture is the only effective means of breaching the determination of the suspect and yields the necessary information (Nincic & Ramos, 2012). The normal interrogation techniques do not succeed in yielding results. Another argument that proponents of torture in justifying its application pose is that it saves time and saves lives.